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8004 PRM Certification - IV: Case Studies - Standards: Governance Best Prac

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8004 exam Dumps Source : PRM Certification - IV: Case Studies - Standards: Governance Best Prac

Test Code : 8004
Test title : PRM Certification - IV: Case Studies - Standards: Governance Best Prac
Vendor title : Avaya
real questions : 110 true Questions

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wise link, a Saudi-based BPO company, has teamed up with Avaya to precipitate up judicious link’s expansion and the diversification of its digital functions portfolio. both groups signed a Memorandum of knowing (MoU) total through Gitex if you want to allow smart link to adopt Avaya Contact core as a provider items to assist meet consumer claim for digital features.

part of Al-Khaleej practicing & schooling, judicious link is digitalizing and automating total its activities for consumer provider. in the course of the MoU, Avaya will leverage its communications products and strategic company consulting to design a digital transformation street map that supports judicious link’s workforce in speaking and collaborating with purchasers in actual time. The roadmap will goal areas the region judicious link can expand its present offerings, while scaling up its capabilities via a cloud-primarily based infrastructure. 


Hiperdist Launches recent amenities in Dubai to support expansion in the center East & Africa | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Hiperdist has announced the launch of its completely owned state-of-the-paintings amenities at Boulevard Plaza Tower – 1 in Emaar square in Downtown Dubai. The circulate is geared toward assisting the enterprise’s growth and growth in high-boom markets across the middle East & Africa as well as to accomplish stronger its pivotal region in Dubai.

To maintain fun the occasion, the enterprise organised ‘UNVEIL 2018’ a opt for launch hosted at the exclusive BVLGARI luxurious refer Dubai this week for its proper customers and vendors that blanketed the place’s most admired know-how leaders.

taking portion in the emcee prerogative through the dazzling night turned into the acclaimed international television & events Presenter Rania Ali who's a regular at excessive-profile executive ceremonies and conferences. The visitors had been entertained by using Asia’s greatest mentalist Mr. Deepak Rao, who was peculiarly flown in for the adventure, and delighted the visitors together with his celebrated ‘further sensory belief’ show.

Hiperdist is a longtime price-brought distributor for one of the crucial greatest world brands and is neatly-placed within the core East and Africa as a number one technology distributor and concede company. Dr. Antoine Kareh, CEO of the CIS community, of which Hiperdist is an element, stated, “we are delighted to launch their recent premises in Emaar square, Dubai’s most prestigious wield that has been outfitted with the ultimate amenities and cutting-area know-how, and supported via a tremendously specialised and skilled crew.

Mr. Santosh Sansare, ordinary manager of Hiperdist, brought, “Our recent amenities will provide us a particular aggressive side and may permit us to meet the calls for of the brand recent expertise while accelerating their deliberate expansion. it is going to additionally add big cost for their vendors and partners and supply them a lovely platform.”

Hiperdist has made an investment of US$ 2.5 million in its newest office amenities and convention middle. in addition to wonderful offices and assembly rooms, it's fitted with a state-of-the-paintings working towards house and hosts an concede center for DEMOs, proof of concept capabilities, as well as to bring income and technical trainings to its channel partners.

Hiperdist is at the forefront of the latest advances in know-how and has made primary inroads within the arena working with manufacturers offering probably the most imaginitive products. probably the most precise brands that Hiperdist presently has in its portfolio encompass Canon, Lenovo, Acer, Asus, Avaya, Vertiv, ViewSonic, Synology, Zotac and G.skill. furthermore, at a gaggle stage, the enterprise has had long, remarkable relationships with Oracle, Cisco, NetApp and VMware to identify a number of.

About CIS GroupWith a footprint in over 30 international locations, serving over a thousand corporate consumers and 5000 resellers, CIS group has confirmed to exist a leading technology issuer within the core East and Africa since its foundation in 1980. The community launched UNIDIST (the protecting business that homes the group’s distribution enterprise) in 1992 which prerogative away centered itself as probably the most usurp tips know-how distributor and provide chain concede company across the vicinity. With a market penetration supported via 23 local entities and 4 logistic hubs total the way through EMEA, UNIDIST provides conclusion-to-conclusion provide chain options for total categories of IT products including Computing, Printing & Imaging, Consumables, energy, software and Infrastructure options. The autochthonous and regional entities in UNIDIST’s distribution channel involve Hiperdist, Superdist, Levant Distribution, Interdist Alliances, Hiperdist Alliances, IT4Africa and Hiperdist advice expertise trading.

For media contact:Hina BakhtManaging DirectorEVOPS marketing & PRMob: 00971 50 6975146Tel: 00971 4 566 7355Hina.bakht@evops-pr.comwww.evops-pr.com

EVOPS advertising & PR is geared up with the newest know-how and digital means to provide corporations with essentially the most finished and creative advertising options and methods. With an integrated 360° marketing method, they tender their customers bespoke, seamless and personalised provider in an era of quick-paced, true-time judicious advertising.

Cluster I, Silver Tower, JLTwww.evops-pr.com

This unlock turned into published on openPR.


Hiperdist opens recent office at Emaar rectangular Dubai | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Hiperdist, a number one technology distributor and concede issuer. has introduced the launch of its completely owned state-of-the-artwork amenities at the Boulevard Plaza Tower – 1 in Emaar square within Downtown Dubai.

part of CIS neighborhood, Hiperdist referred to the circulation is aimed toward supporting its boom and growth in high-increase markets across the core East and Africa vicinity as well as to increase its pivotal position in Dubai.

To tag the event, the enterprise organised ‘Unveil 2018’ a elect launch adventure at the unique BVLGARI luxurious hotel Dubai this week for its redress purchasers and providers that protected the region’s most in claim expertise leaders.

playing the emcee at the event was overseas television & hobbies presenter Rania Ali who's an everyday at high-profile executive ceremonies and conferences.

The guests were entertained by Asia’s model mentalist Deepak Rao, who become mainly flown in for the adventure, and thrilled the visitors together with his celebrated ‘extra sensory notion’ display.

Hiperdist is an established value-delivered distributor for one of the crucial biggest world manufacturers and is neatly-placed in the MEA as a leading expertise distributor and solution provider.

community CEO Dr Antoine Kareh observed: "we are delighted to launch their recent premises in Emaar rectangular, Dubai’s most prestigious address that has been fitted with the most fulfilling facilities and cutting-area technology, and supported via a extremely specialised and skilled crew."

one of the redress brands that Hiperdist at the moment has in its portfolio encompass Canon, Lenovo, Acer, Asus, Avaya, Vertiv, ViewSonic, Synology, Zotac and G.ability.

additionally, at a group level, the company has had lengthy, awesome relationships with leading organizations including Oracle, Cisco, NetApp and VMware.

Hiperdist has made an funding of $2.5 million in its latest office amenities and convention centre.

apart from hitech offices and meeting rooms, it's geared up with practising space and hosts an concede centre for demos, proof of conception functions, as well as to carry sales and technical trainings to its channel partners.

Hiperdist habitual supervisor Santosh Sansare noted: "Our recent facilities will supply us a particular competitive aspect and will permit us to answer the demands of the brand recent technology whereas accelerating their planned enlargement."

"it's going to additionally add colossal cost for their carriers and companions and provide them an exquisite platform," he delivered.-TradeArabia information carrier


8004 PRM Certification - IV: Case Studies - Standards: Governance Best Prac

Study lead Prepared by Killexams.com Avaya Dumps Experts


Killexams.com 8004 Dumps and true Questions

100% true Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with tall Marks - Just Memorize the Answers



8004 exam Dumps Source : PRM Certification - IV: Case Studies - Standards: Governance Best Prac

Test Code : 8004
Test title : PRM Certification - IV: Case Studies - Standards: Governance Best Prac
Vendor title : Avaya
real questions : 110 true Questions

check out these true 8004 questions and examine help.
It is top notch tang for the 8004 exam. With no longer a entire lot stuff available on line, Im joyous I were givenkillexams.Com. The questions/answers are just notable. With killexams.com, the examination End up very smooth, amazing.


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knowing thoroughly about my time constraint, started out trying to find an smooth way out earlier than the 8004 examination. After an extended searh, discovered the question and answers via killexams.com which absolutely made my day. imparting total in total likelihood questions with their quick and pointed answers helped hold proximate topics in a brief time and felt joyous to cozy accurate marks within the examination. The materials are besides smooth to memorise. im inspired and satiated with my consequences.


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I was about to give up exam 8004 because I wasnt confident in whether I would pass or not. With just a week remaining I decided to switch to killexams.com QA for my exam preparation. Never thought that the topics that I had always elude away from would exist so much fun to study; its facile and short way of getting to the points made my preparation lot easier. total thanks to killexams.com QA, I never thought I would pass my exam but I did pass with flying colors.


No questions become asked that become out of those true questions financial institution.
The excellent element approximately your query bank is the explanations furnished with the solutions. It helps to understand the theme conceptually. I had subscribed for the 8004 query financial institution and had long gone thru it three-4 times. within the exam, I tried total the questions under forty mins and scored 90 marks. thank you for making it cleanly for us. Hearty way to killexams.com crew, with the assist of your version questions.


How many questions are asked in 8004 exam?
I passed 8004 exam. thanks to Killexams. The exam is very hard, and I dont know how long it would hook me to prepare on my own. killexams.com questions are very facile to memorize, and the best portion is that they are true and correct. So you basically fade in knowing what youll espy on your exam. As long as you pass this complicated exam and result your 8004 certification on your resume.


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PRM Certification - IV: Case Studies - Standards: Governance Best Prac

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on the role of employee financial participation in creating jobs and reactivating the unemployed | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

on the role of employee financial participation in creating jobs and reactivating the unemployed

(2018/2053(INI))

The European Parliament,

–  having esteem to the Treaty on the European Union (TEU), and in particular Article 3(3),

–  having esteem to Article 9 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), which requires the EU to promote a tall flat of employment, guarantee adequate convivial protection, fight against convivial exclusion and ensure a tall flat of education, training and protection of human health,

–  having esteem to the Council conclusions of 7 December 2015 on the promotion of the convivial economy as a key driver of economic and convivial development in Europe,

–  having esteem to the Commission communication of 2 June 2016 entitled ‘A European agenda for the collaborative economy’ (COM(2016)0356),

–  having esteem to the Commission communication of 27 March 2014 entitled ‘Long-term Financing of the European Economy’ (COM(2014)0168),

–  having esteem to the Commission communication of 12 December 2012 entitled ‘Action Plan: European company law and corporate governance – a modern legal framework for more engaged shareholders and sustainable companies’ (COM(2012)0740),

–  having esteem to the Commission communication of 3 October 2012 entitled ‘Single Market Act II – Together for recent growth’ (COM(2012)0573),

–  having esteem to the Commission communication of 3 March 2010 entitled ‘Europe 2020: a strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth’ (COM(2010)2020),

–  having esteem to the Commission recommendation of 3 October 2008 on the vigorous inclusion of people excluded from the labour market(1),

–  having esteem to the Commission communication of 25 June 2008 entitled ‘Think minuscule First – A “Small business Act” for Europe’ (COM(2008)0394) and the Commission’s 2008 and 2009 drudgery Programmes,

–  having esteem to the Commission communication of 14 March 2006 entitled ‘Implementing the Lisbon Community Programme for Growth and Jobs: Transfer of Businesses – Continuity through a recent beginning’ (COM(2006)0117),

–  having esteem to the Commission communication of 5 July 2002 entitled ‘A framework for the promotion of employee financial participation’ (COM(2002)0364) and Parliament’s resolution of 5 June 2003 thereon(2),

–  having esteem to the sentiment of the European Economic and convivial Committee (EESC) of 21 October 2010 on employee financial participation in Europe,

–  having esteem to its resolution of 15 January 2013 on information and consultation of workers, anticipation and management of restructuring(3),

–  having esteem to its resolution of 14 January 2014 on financial participation of employees in companies’ proceeds(4), and the sentiment of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (2013/2127(INI)),

–  having esteem to the study requested by Parliament’s Committee on Employment and convivial Affairs entitled ‘Employee financial participation in companies’ proceeds’, which was published in September 2012,

–  having esteem to the Mid-Term Review of the Capital Markets Union Action arrangement published on 8 June 2017 (COM(2017)0292),

–  –  having esteem to the Commission’s pilot project entitled the ‘Promotion of employee ownership and participation’, of which the final version was published in 2014,

–  having esteem to the PEPPER IV Report, entitled ‘Benchmarking of employee participation in profits and enterprise results in the member and candidate countries of the European Union’, which was published in October 2009 by the Free University of Berlin,

–  having esteem to the PEPPER III Report, entitled ‘Promotion of employee participation in profits and enterprise results in the recent member and candidate countries of the European Union’, which was published in June 2006 by the Free University of Berlin,

–  having esteem to the report of 18 December 2003 of the high-level group of independent experts on transnational obstacles to the growth of employee financial participation in transnational enterprises,

–  having esteem to the PEPPER II Report, entitled ‘Promotion of participation by employed persons in profits and enterprise results (including equity participation) in Member States’, which was published by the Commission in January 1997 (COM(1996)0697),

–  having esteem to the PEPPER I Report, entitled ‘Promotion of employee participation in profits and enterprise results’, which was published in March 1991 by the Commission and the European University Institute,

–  having esteem to Rule 52 of its Rules of Procedure,

–  having esteem to the report of the Committee on Employment and convivial Affairs (A8-0293/2018),

A.  whereas there are several employee financial participation (EFP) models an employer can elect from: profit sharing, individual employee partake ownership, worker ownership in cooperative models and employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs);

B.  whereas the most usurp EFP model must exist carefully chosen by the individual company and its workers, taking due account of the specific national taxation rules and sectoral context, and will mostly depend on the size, activity and status of the company, especially if it is listed; whereas it is not usurp to develop a comprehensive ‘one size fits all’ model for EFP at EU level;

C.  whereas, according to data from the 2013 European Company Survey(5), EFP schemes can vary greatly according to company characteristics; whereas 62% of European establishments use some profile of variable pay, with profit sharing accounting for 30% and pay linked to group performance 25%; whereas share-ownership schemes are used by 5% of establishments; whereas these EFP schemes are more prevalent in the private sector than in the public sector (with some national exceptions), as well as in inevitable economic sectors, particularly information and communications technology, finance, insurance, and consultancy; whereas larger companies are more likely to use these EFP schemes than minuscule and medium-sized enterprises, and they are besides more common in foreign-capital or multinational companies and in companies located in economically(6) central or advanced regions;

D.  whereas ESOPs are a profile of EFP using an intermediate entity able to exercise voting rights or other forms of governance on behalf of employees, who could voluntarily chose them;

E.  whereas EFP schemes involving workers in consultation and decision-making maintain proven(7) benefits for both employees and the company, including in terms of sustainable governance, transparency, convivial dialogue, mutual respect between employers and employees, and other aspects such as recruitment, retention, motivation, job satisfaction and skills development, as well as overall performance and profitability;

F.  whereas employee participation in decision-making could help organisational performance and employees’ trait of working life, and whereas it could act as a workplace innovation tool(8) to promote a sense of ownership, enhance the tide of information in the company and help levels of reliance between employers and employees;

G.  whereas EFP schemes can maintain positive impacts on the economy of Member States by supporting companies, including SMEs, and the job market; whereas workers’ financial participation in their company can contribute to job satisfaction, a sense of ownership, mutual respect between employers and employees and overall performance, and can inspirit employees find opportunities in their home countries;

H.  whereas, in the context of the development of the Capital Market Union (CMU), EFP could contribute to the CMU objectives of inclusive growth and transparency in economic activity; whereas EFP, if coupled with training for participants provided by companies and Member States, could help financial education amongst EU citizens, potentially reducing their reluctance to invest, and potentially increasing retail investment;

I.  whereas the European Employment Strategy and the Europe 2020 Strategy set priorities to help the trait of jobs and ensure better working conditions; whereas increasing employee participation in company financial results and offering better rewards could inspirit meet these goals;

J.  whereas EFP must fade hand-in-hand with a tall flat of information, training and consultation with staff so that they are fully cognizant of the functioning of the financial participation schemes that they could join, to enable them to accomplish a fully informed assessment of the potential benefits and risks of these schemes, such as in the case of the company’s bankruptcy;

K.  whereas, through EFP, enhanced convivial dialogue and strategic decision-making, employers might invest in development opportunities for their workforce, thus contributing to the fight against convivial exclusion and ensuring a tall flat of training;

L.  whereas, by involving employees in the decision-making process, depending on the specificity of the scheme, EFP can, in some cases, inspirit companies, including SMEs, with respect to restructuring and business continuity by addressing company succession and generational renewal problems, for instance in family businesses;

M.  whereas it should exist borne in intelligence that EFP has positive and negative elements to it;

N.  whereas EFP bears some financial risks, but might besides act as a shock absorber, allowing bonuses or other rewards and besides ensuring that workers maintain a portfolio of saved shares; whereas ESOPs in particular may exist an instance of an employee buy-out model for non-listed companies where the priority buy-out process could allow employees to potentially safeguard their own jobs when there is the possibility of buy-outs by other companies;

O.  whereas measures are therefore needed to protect employees from facing risks such as losing both their job and the capital invested when their employer is impacted by a crisis; whereas EFP may not exist used to reduce the convivial and employment rights acquired by employees, must not supersede habitual basic pay, other forms of remuneration or contributions to pension schemes, and must not exist a way to transfer risks onto the worker or not to comply with labour law;

P.  whereas participation in the EFP should remain intentional for employees, particularly in SMEs, while not affecting their labour market mobility, their convivial security or their prerogative to hook collective action; whereas employees should therefore maintain access at total times to information regarding the economic situation of the company, with the exception of its trade secrets and commercially sensitive information, and exist informed of the advantages and disadvantages of each EFP scheme available;

Q.  whereas fiscal incentives are key elements to promote EFP that could pay off in a medium to long term, considering that countries which maintain a long tradition of employee financial participation besides maintain the most developed employee ownership and the highest fiscal benefits;

R.  whereas proactive employment policies such as support for genuine self-employment and regular and convivial entrepreneurship are captious tools for the reintegration of the unemployed into the labour market, in line with the European Entrepreneurship Action arrangement adopted in January 2013;

S.  whereas the current European convivial Fund promotes convivial entrepreneurship and the convivial and solidarity economy, and the upcoming ESF Plus should continue to enact so; whereas EFP can accomplish a valuable contribution to the development of the convivial and solidarity economy by, for example, making investment or funding more accessible;

T.  whereas EFP can exist complementary to EU programmes aimed at improving access to capital, especially for SMEs, such as the COSME programme, the InnovFin programme, the Creative Europe programme and the European structural and investment funds;

U.  whereas EFP could exist a complementary instrument to the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund which helps people who maintain lost their jobs as a result of major structural changes due to globalisation or the economic and financial juncture with respect to re-skilling, training, supporting self-employment, business start-ups and employee takeovers;

V.  whereas EU guidelines for EFP could inspirit Member States develop frameworks for EFP schemes that could potentially lead to benefits both for employers and employees and besides increase public awareness of EFP;

W.  whereas information about the economic situation of the company concerned, as well as information about the attached risks, should exist available to the workers concerned at total times;

1.  Calls on the Commission to account usurp recommendations to inspirit Member States and companies, particularly SMEs, to develop and tender EFP schemes for the capitalize and in the interest of both employees and companies; stresses that these schemes should:

-  protect workers’ income safety,

-  not exploit workers in a juncture situation,

-  not shift entrepreneurial risk to workers,

-  guarantee a tall flat of protection for workers’ investments;

2.  Calls on the Member States to provide non-mandatory incentives, including tax incentives that enact not override national taxation rules, in line with best rehearse principles, when promoting employee ownership schemes among companies and employees, at the same time as supporting the highest standards of convivial protection for employees and safeguarding their prerogative to collective action;

3.  Underlines that EFP has to exist embedded in a system of workers’ involvement, for instance in company decision-making, including through workers’ representatives, and that EFP must not exist a substitute for objective and decent pay, nor an alternative to public pensions or to collectively agreed pension schemes;

4.  Calls on the Commission to implement the ‘five-point action plan’ included in the final report of the pilot project for the promotion of employee ownership and participation of 2014;

5.  Recognises the link between legislative measures at national flat favouring EFP schemes and the number of companies and employees using them;

6.  Highlights the transnational obstacles that are faced by both companies offering such schemes in several Member States, and employees, namely discrepancies in legislation and the risks of double taxation which may incur substantial administrative costs and impinge on the liberty of movement of workers, which plays an primary role in combating the scourge of unemployment and enhancing convergence and integration among Member States;

7.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to raise awareness as advised in the final report of the pilot project for the promotion of employee ownership and participation from 2014, to capitalise on the findings of research projects and inspirit the cross-border transferability of best practices, and to pose a set of simple, elementary and basic supportive models;

8.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to provide dedicated websites that would involve model profit-sharing agreements for SMEs and VSEs for ease of implementation, as well as information about attached risks and other apropos material; further calls on the Commission and Member States to continue collecting data on the use and spread of financial participation schemes, as well as to examine the repercussion of financial participation on the functioning of the company, the trait of its drudgery and its retention of workers, with the inspirit of the European Foundation for the Improvement of animated and Working Conditions;

9.  Calls on the Member States and the Commission to assist companies which testify an interest in EFP with solutions and specific support measures to avoid inordinate administrative and development costs associated with implementing EFP, especially in SMEs, and to inspirit outsourcing operators such as banks and investment funds to pose simple EFP schemes tailored to suit this sort of company, while making sure that intermediaries enact not hook edge of the smallest companies, and that there are no hidden costs;

10.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to promote financial education in order to empower EU citizens and raise awareness about the implications of EFP;

11.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to engage with convivial partners, employee ownership organisations and other stakeholders at the dawn of the process in order to design the most usurp EFP frameworks, and when an EFP scheme is considered relevant, to negotiate it on a ‘plant-by-plant’ basis while considering the size and sort of company, its workforce and financial situation, but besides the national legislation and practices;

12.  Recommends negotiating employee savings schemes and tools at a branch-by-branch flat in order to provide SMEs and VSEs with gauge agreements that can exist implemented directly and conveniently by these companies;

13.  Highlights that EFP should exist open to total employees on a non-discriminatory basis, regardless of age, gender, nationality, full-time / part-time drudgery arrangements, etc.;

14.  Adds that differentiation between employees may exist justified to meet the different needs and interests of the employees, such as restricted shares plans that are confined to executives;

15.  Considers that ESOPs should besides allow employees to use the ESOP account for other equity than that of the current employer, so as to mitigate concentration risk, particularly for SMEs;

16.  Recalls that the conclusion to unite EFP schemes should exist totally voluntary, signification no action should exist taken against employees if they elect not to unite and when they agree, their participation should exist based on usurp training and the informed consent of the employee, who is fully cognizant of his or her entitlements, obligations and risks, of the situation of the company, of the advantages and disadvantages of each scheme, of the taxation effects when joining the scheme and of the conditions which apply when he or she leaves the company or the scheme;

17.  Considers that EFP should not supersede or diminish habitual basic remuneration or any other profile of contribution such as convivial security contributions, but should exist complementary to total convivial and contractual rights, this being a pre-condition to implementing EFP;

18.  Believes that more links should exist developed between EFP and the convivial economy, especially through programmes such as Creative Europe which tender microloans up to EUR 25 000 to minuscule companies and convivial businesses;

19.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to account the rapid evolution and change of the labour market and the consequent challenges regarding skills, digitalisation, automation, wealth inequalities and convivial security cuts, and the continuous creation of recent opportunities to support and protect workers and enable them to reconcile and develop professionally and personally;

20.  Stresses the primary role that EFP can play in fostering entrepreneurship and an entrepreneurial intelligence set by facilitating research and access to capital, especially for start-ups;

21.  Highlights that although micro-enterprises play an primary role in the economy of most EU Member States, no supportive measures for employee partake ownership are implemented for them as yet;

22.  Welcomes initiatives led by directorates-general of the Commission such as DG EMPL, FISMA and GROW supporting employment, SMEs and the capital markets union, and calls for a coordinated approach for the best use of available resources, remembering that the final beneficiary is the European citizen;

23.  Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and the Commission.

(1)

OJ L 307, 18.11.2008, p. 11.

(2)

OJ C 68E , 18.3.2004, p. 429.

(3)

OJ C 440, 30.12.2015, p. 23.

(4)

OJ C 482, 23.12.2016, p. 41.

(5)

Third European Company Survey, Eurofound, 2013.

(6)

Changes in remuneration and reward systems, Eurofound, 2016.

(7)

Annual economic survey of employee partake ownership in European countries.

(8)

Workplace innovation in European companies, Eurofound, 2016.


Long-running telemedicine networks delivering humanitarian services: experience, performance and scientific output | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

a. Norwegian Centre for Integrated reliance and Telemedicine, University Hospital of North Norway, N-9038 Tromsø, Norway.b. Department of Radiology and Medical Informatics, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.c. center for Connected Health, Boston, United States of America (USA).d. Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.e. Pacific Island Health reliance Project, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, USA.f. Donetsk National Medical University, Donetsk, Ukraine.g. Clinical Sciences Department, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.

Correspondence to Richard Wootton (e-mail: r_wootton@pobox.com).

(Submitted: 17 November 2011 – Revised version received: 01 March 2012 – Accepted: 01 March 2012.)

Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2012;90:341-347D. doi: 10.2471/BLT.11.099143

Introduction

Telemedicine (i.e. medicine practised at a distance) has been used to help health reliance delivery in a wide compass of applications. To date, most of the drudgery has taken region in industrialized countries and there is relatively dinky tang in the developing world.1 Telemedicine’s fundamental capitalize is in improving access to care, and in the developing world such access is often poor.1 Thus, telemedicine may provide a useful way to reduce inequities and strengthen health systems in developing countries.

In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) established a global observatory for e-health to monitor the development of information and communications technologies (ICT) for health reliance – including telemedicine – and to provide reliable information and guidance on best practices, policies and standards. According to a recent survey, telemedicine has progressed far less in lower-income countries than in high-income countries both in terms of the harmony of countries with established services and the harmony offering pilot telemedicine services.2 Nonetheless, several telemedicine networks around the world deliver humanitarian services on a routine basis, many to low-income countries. These networks provide tele-consultations for physicians and other health professionals needing advice about the clinical management of difficult cases, and some besides provide education. Store-and-forward methods (e.g. e-mail) are often used for communication because they are generally cheaper and more convenient, but real-time methods (e.g. video links) are besides used when required. Telemedicine networks delivering humanitarian services may exist of interest to decision-makers considering wider implementation. Existing networks employ different organizational models and provide different kinds of services, and what represents best rehearse is unclear. Furthermore, data about network activities and performance are lacking.

To ensure efficient and usurp use of telemedicine in resource-limited settings, implementation must exist guided by more and better evidence.3 The objective of the present paper is to summarize the tang gained so far with long-running telemedicine networks delivering humanitarian services; it looks at general information, network performance and scientific output. Long-running networks were selected for study because want of programme sustainability is a commonly reported problem in telemedicine.

Methods

The drudgery was conducted in three stages: (i) identifying apropos telemedicine networks; (ii) collecting information about their activities, and (iii) summarizing the resulting data.

Network selection

Long-running telemedicine networks delivering humanitarian services were identified. In this context, “long-running” was defined as having existed for 5 years or more. “Telemedicine” was defined as clinical and educational drudgery at a distance. “Humanitarian services” were defined as actions designed to redeem lives, alleviate suffering and maintain human dignity delivered unconditionally (i.e. without seeking payment from their recipients). These networks were initially identified by one of the authors based on personal scholarship of the field.

A contact person at each telemedicine network was approached and asked if they knew of any other long-running telemedicine networks. This produced a list of nine networks, total of which were contacted. Two of the nine telemedicine networks were excluded from further consideration: one because it had apparently ceased operating when contacted and another because it never replied. The seven long-running telemedicine networks covered by this paper are shown in Table 1. Respondents, who were always the network coordinators, were invited to co-author this paper in recognition of their contribution to data collection, subsequent data analysis and the preparation of this paper.

Data collection

In September 2011, a questionnaire was sent to each contact person to collect basic information about the networks. This was followed in October 2011 by a second questionnaire designed to collect more circumstantial information regarding network performance and the evidence base. Each questionnaire contained 20 questions based on the framework for network performance evaluation proposed by Wootton et al.4 This framework takes into account the perspectives of the three main user groups – requesters (i.e. physicians requesting advice on the management of difficult cases), coordinators (i.e. network managers) and experts (i.e. those who respond to the electronic referrals) – and it identifies five performance measures of relevance to each of the three user groups. A third questionnaire was sent in February 2012 to obtain information about governance, liability and confidentiality.

Data summary

From the responses to the questionnaire, a list of the scientific papers describing the drudgery of each network was compiled. Only papers listed in Medline and dealing with telemedicine services were included in the analysis. To summarize their contents, one author extracted information from each published paper on the following: (i) study design; (ii) effectiveness; (iii) quality; (iv) economics; (v) provision of access to care, and (vi) sustainability.

A second author, working independently, then graded each point. Study design was assessed using the nine-point scale traditionally employed to measure the might of the evidence.5 For convenience, the nine levels were converted into a trait score (1 = poor, 2 = average, 3 = good), where levels I–III were considered good, IV–VI average, and VII–IX poor. The other five topics were graded subjectively and assigned a trait score based on the amount of information provided about them (0 = none, 1 = poor, 2 = average, 3 = good). Finally, the results were reviewed by total authors and changed by consensus where necessary. Hence, the papers from each network were reviewed by total the other networks, and this increased the consistency of the results.

Results General information

The seven networks studied had been in operation from 5 to 15 years (median: 11 years), as shown in Table 2, available at: http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/90/5/11-099143. total the networks provide clinical tele-consultations for humanitarian purposes, and five of them were besides involved in some profile of education.

All networks used store-and-forward (asynchronous) methods for delivering tele-consultations, which confirms that real-time techniques are probably not usurp in the present context. In addition, one telemedicine network used videoconferencing for consultations pertaining to trauma cases, which usually require an immediate response. Four of the networks offered tele-consultations in total clinical specialties, whereas the other three networks focused on delivering specialist services in areas such as traumatology, orthopaedics, neurosurgery, dermatology and management of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The source of funding for apparatus acquisition and maintenance varied between telemedicine networks but was generally a mingle of charitable funds and national or local support.

Four of the five networks delivering tele-education provided circumstantial information about their activities. Three networks delivered tele-education via asynchronous methods such as computer-based learning or web-based discussion forums. Two networks besides used synchronous tele-education delivered through videoconferencing. Educational activities were offered by total the telemedicine networks delivering tele-consultations in specialty areas. Consistent with the clinical activities, tele-education was offered for trauma, dermatology and HIV/AIDS case management.

Organizational models were investigated through questions regarding the three main user groups. The number of requesters gives an understanding of the size of each network and ranged from 10 to over 500. The number of requesters was loosely associated with the compass of clinical services provided but not with the duration of network operation. The number of referring sites ranged from 4 to 399, and the number of countries ranged from 1 to 58. The number of sites and countries where requesters were based was roughly proportional to the number of requesters. Methods of requester accreditation – the licensing necessary to discharge a clinical consultation – were different between the seven telemedicine networks, as circumstantial in Table 2. Three of the networks had a formal requester accreditation process; others used a more informal mechanism, consisting, for example, of personally knowing the physicians involved. One network claimed to maintain no requester accreditation process at all.

The smallest network had a total of 15 experts and the largest had 513. The number of sites where these were located varied greatly, from 1 to 502, and the number of countries ranged from 1 to 22. Differences in organizational models were evidenced by the big differences in the number of physicians using the telemedicine networks. One network indicated that not total requesters and experts were vigorous because of constant staff turnover. This was not surprising, especially for big networks registering hundreds of physicians. total seven telemedicine networks had experts based in other industrialized countries. Two networks besides had experts located in the countries where the requesters were based, and one network had experts from other developing countries. total the telemedicine networks had a process for accrediting the experts, as circumstantial in Table 2. Methods of accreditation included status licensure, formal credentials, clinical tang and training. Finally, in six telemedicine networks the experts were working as volunteers. Only two networks paid experts for the time they spent delivering tele-consultations.

The management of requests and the selection of the experts responsible for answering them were done by a coordinator in six of the seven networks. Thus, the coordinator appears to exist a key element of the networks’ organizational model. In one network, this activity was performed entirely by the requesters themselves, whereas in another network the requesters were supported in the process by a coordinator. The coordinators and the experts were funded differently; in three of the seven networks coordinators were volunteers, whereas in the other four networks they were paid for their time.

Network performance

Network activity ranged from 50–400 tele-consultations per year. In 2010, the networks managed an middling of 209 cases. In 2006–2011, three networks showed a positive trend over the 5-year period, three showed a negative trend, and one showed stable activity. On average, network activity increased by about 10% each year.

The middling time to first reply to a request is an primary performance measure affecting the value of the clinical tele-consultations to the referrer. Estimates from the terminal 12 months of operation showed that most networks took an middling of 24 hours (range: 5.6–72 hours) to provide a first reply to a request. Unanswered replies to requests in 2010 were very few, particularly compared with network activity. Moreover, some requests could not exist processed; in some cases, for instance, inadequate images were submitted and the referrer was unable to provide satisfactory alternatives. Overall, almost total requests were answered promptly, i.e. within 48 hours. Another performance measure is the possibility of a dialogue between requesters and experts. This feature was available for total seven telemedicine networks. On the other hand, the experts were not always informed of individual patient outcomes. In 2010, the number of cases managed by a network whose individual outcomes were fed back to experts varied from zilch in some networks to total in others.

Little quantitative data were available on the educational activities conducted by the telemedicine networks since their establishment. Data from the RAFT [Réseau en Afrique Francophone pour la Télémédecine] network in sub-Saharan Africa showed an increase in the number of hours of tele-education delivered each year. The telemedicine network of the Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM) in Antwerp, Belgium, offered online learning and web-based discussion forums, but contact hours could not exist quantified.

Scientific output

By the time of the survey, the seven networks had published a total of 59 papers; 44 that dealt with telemedicine and that were indexed in Medline were included in the present study.6–49 The scientific output represented by the 44 papers is summarized in Table 3. Information about study design was available for total papers. In particular, 29 papers represented non-controlled clinical series, with the number of patients observed ranging from a dozen to about 2000. The remaining 15 papers were anecdotes or case reports. Thus, total papers provided evidence classified as impoverished in strength. Evidence pertaining to programme sustainability and improved access to reliance was provided by more than half of the papers. One fourth of them besides covered trait and effectiveness, while only a few provided any evidence on network economics. Overall, the trait of the scientific output was impoverished to average.

Other factors

Other factors apropos to the operation of each telemedicine network are summarized in Table 4, available at: http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/90/5/11-099143. Although governance varied across the seven networks as a office of differences in organizational models and contexts, medical liability and patient confidentiality were handled in similar ways. The factors concerning sustainability were generally different between networks, and included institutional anchoring, organizational models, technical and clinical solutions, clinical trait and benefits to patients, exit strategy, technology and funding. Uncertainties in funding were a common risk factor. Others had to enact with the availability of coordinators, the training of experts, a want of infrastructure and apparatus and similar problems. Questionnaire respondents gave their views about the future plans of their telemedicine networks. These were similar across networks and had to enact primarily with expansion to other countries and with the engagement of additional experts. Collaboration with other telemedicine networks was besides listed as a feasible and useful arrangement for the future.

Discussion

The present study summarizes the tang gained to date with existing telemedicine networks that deliver humanitarian services. total of the seven well established, long-standing networks studied provided reasonable evidence that they were improving access to reliance in the developing world. However, the overall trait of the scientific output emanating from these networks is still rather weak. This applies to study design and to the evaluation of other primary parameters, including effectiveness, service trait and economics. Stronger evidence is therefore needed to increase the usurp use, scale and repercussion of telemedicine in resource-limited settings.50 This requisite for stronger evidence underscores that more and better evaluations requisite to exist conducted.3 Given their size and relative success, long-running telemedicine networks should exist the theme of controlled evaluations in future.

Another apropos finding from the study pertains to network performance. Measuring the performance of a telemedicine network is essential for understanding whether the network is working as intended or having the desired effect. By adapting a recently developed framework for network performance evaluation,4 they documented the seven telemedicine networks’ performance and the services they provided. Differences in services and performance could exist explained by different organizational models.

Notwithstanding the use of different organizational models, clinical case load was strikingly similar across networks: total seven networks were providing only a few hundred tele-consultations annually. This activity flat may issue from the fact that the networks are elude by a single individual or a minuscule number of committed enthusiasts or “clinical champions”. Since the present networks collectively emerge to meet only a tiny fraction of the potential claim from the developing world,51 one may sensation why their activity levels are not increasing rapidly. Although the reasons could exist many, small-scale organizational models may exist one. Future drudgery might therefore exist directed at investigating recent organizational models that would facilitate large-scale network operation. Improved collaboration between existing networks may prove profitable as well, since it would attenuate the want of resources reported by some networks and help sustainability.

The findings of the present study maintain two main implications. First, telemedicine networks delivering humanitarian services emerge to exist sustainable – at least as operated to date – and they deliver clinically useful services. Second, the evidence summarized in this paper, albeit weak, may exist useful to decision-makers. It may, for instance, inspirit ministries of health in developing countries to establish, support or unite similar telemedicine networks.

The present study has several limitations. For one thing, the list of networks studied may not exist exhaustive; other long-running telemedicine networks around the world may besides exist delivering humanitarian services. However, they believe that they maintain covered the main vigorous networks. Furthermore, the study was not a systematic review and the assessment of the trait of the scientific studies emanating from the networks was necessarily subjective. Moreover, they examined only successful networks (and arguably, tang from unsuccessful networks may exist equally informative). Finally, the tang of the telemedicine networks was reviewed by people responding on behalf of the networks and may reflect reporting bias.

The present study emphasizes the requisite to generate stronger evidence and more and better evaluations of telemedicine networks and their effectiveness in improving outcomes and access to health care. Future research should address these topics. Nonetheless, the present study provides reasonable grounds for supporting the future expansion of telemedicine networks offering humanitarian services in developing countries.

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to their colleagues in the various networks for their willingness to partake the data about network operation.

Competing interests:

None declared.

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  • Zolfo M, Lynen L, Dierckx J, Colebunders R. Remote consultations and HIV/AIDS continuing education in low-resource settings. Int J Med Inform 2006; 75: 633-7 doi: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2006.03.002 pmid: 16647877.
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  • Person DA. Pacific Island Health reliance Project: early experiences with a Web-based consultation and referral network. Pac Health Dialog 2000; 7: 29-35 pmid: 11588916.
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  • Abbas MI, Person DA. The Pacific Island Health reliance Project (PIHCP): tang with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) from 1998 to 2006. Hawaii Med J 2008; 67: 326-9 pmid: 19244704.
  • Bush LA, Ruess L, Jack T, Person DA. Adrenal insufficiency secondary to tuberculosis: the value of telemedicine in the remote diagnosis of Addison’s disease in Ebeye, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Hawaii Med J 2009; 68: 8-11 pmid: 19365922.
  • Batts S, Thompson MW, Person DA. Late presentation of diaphragmatic hernia in a Pacific Island pediatric population. Hawaii Med J 2009; 68: 59-61 pmid: 19441615.
  • Kedar I, Ternullo JL, Weinrib CE, Kelleher KM, Brandling-Bennett H, Kvedar JC. Internet based consultations to transfer scholarship for patients requiring specialised care: retrospective case review. BMJ 2003; 326: 696-9 doi: 10.1136/bmj.326.7391.696 pmid: 12663408.
  • Heinzelmann PJ, Jacques G, Kvedar JC. Telemedicine by email in remote Cambodia. J Telemed Telecare 2005; 11: S44-7 doi: 10.1258/135763305775124858 pmid: 16375794.
  • Brandling-Bennett HA, Kedar I, Pallin DJ, Jacques G, Gumley GJ, Kvedar JC. Delivering health reliance in rustic Cambodia via store-and-forward telemedicine: a pilot study. Telemed J E Health 2005; 11: 56-62 doi: 10.1089/tmj.2005.11.56 pmid: 15785221.
  • Kvedar J, Heinzelmann PJ, Jacques G. Cancer diagnosis and telemedicine: a case study from Cambodia. Ann Oncol 2006; 17: i37-i42 doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdl986 pmid: 16801338.
  • Geissbuhler A, Ly O, Lovis C, L’Haire JF. Telemedicine in Western Africa: lessons scholarly from a pilot project in Mali, perspectives and recommendations. AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2003249-53 pmid: 14728172.
  • Bagayoko CO, Müller H, Geissbuhler A. Assessment of Internet-based tele-medicine in Africa (the RAFT project). Comput Med Imaging Graph 2006; 30: 407-16 doi: 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2006.09.014 pmid: 17049808.
  • Geissbuhler A, Bagayoko CO, Ly O. The RAFT network: 5 years of distance continuing medical education and tele-consultations over the Internet in French-speaking Africa. Int J Med Inform 2007; 76: 351-6 doi: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2007.01.012 pmid: 17331799.
  • Bagayoko CO, Niang M, Traoré ST, Bediang G, Naef JM, Geissbuhler A. Deploying portable ultrasonography with remote assistance for isolated physicians in Africa: lessons from a pilot study in Mali. Stud Health Technol Inform 2010; 160: 554-8 pmid: 20841748.
  • Bediang G, Bagayoko CO, Geissbuhler A. Medical conclusion support systems in Africa. Yearb Med Inform 201047-54 pmid: 20938570.
  • Bediang G, Bagayoko CO, Raetzo MA, Geissbuhler A. Relevance and usability of a computerized patient simulator for continuous medical education of isolated reliance professionals in sub-saharan Africa. Stud Health Technol Inform 2011; 169: 666-70 pmid: 21893831.
  • Bagayoko CO, Anne A, Fieschi M, Geissbuhler A. Can ICTs Contribute to the Efficiency and Provide Equitable Access to the Health reliance System in Sub-Saharan Africa? The Mali Experience. Yearb Med Inform 2011; 6: 33-8 pmid: 21938322.
  • Wootton R. Design and implementation of an automatic message-routing system for low-cost telemedicine. J Telemed Telecare 2003; 9: S44-7 doi: 10.1258/135763303322196312 pmid: 12952720.
  • Wootton R, Menzies J, Ferguson P. Follow-up data for patients managed by store and forward telemedicine in developing countries. J Telemed Telecare 2009; 15: 83-8 doi: 10.1258/jtt.2008.080710 pmid: 19246608.
  • Alverson DC, Swinfen LR, Swinfen LP, Rheuban K, Sable C, Smith AC, et al., et al. Transforming systems of reliance for children in the global community. Pediatr Ann 2009; 38: 579-85 doi: 10.3928/00904481-20090918-11 pmid: 19968198.
  • Patterson V, Swinfen P, Swinfen R, Azzo E, Taha H, Wootton R. Supporting hospital doctors in the Middle East by email telemedicine: something the industrialized world can enact to help. J Med Internet Res 2007; 9: e30- doi: 10.2196/jmir.9.4.e30 pmid: 17951214.
  • Wootton R, Youngberry K, Swinfen R, Swinfen P. Referral patterns in a global store-and-forward telemedicine system. J Telemed Telecare 2005; 11: S100-3 doi: 10.1258/135763305775124966 pmid: 16375814.
  • Wootton R, Youngberry K, Swinfen P, Swinfen R. Prospective case review of a global e-health system for doctors in developing countries. J Telemed Telecare 2004; 10: 94-6 doi: 10.1258/1357633042614177 pmid: 15603625.
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  • Jakowenko J, Wootton R. An analysis of the images attached to referral messages in an email-based telemedicine system for developing countries. J Telemed Telecare 2006; 12: S49-53 doi: 10.1258/135763306779380066.
  • Vassallo DJ. A lead to sending e-mail telemedicine referrals. Trop Doct 2003; 33: 34-5 pmid: 12568519.
  • Vassallo DJ, Swinfen P, Swinfen R, Wootton R. tang with a low-cost telemedicine system in three developing countries. J Telemed Telecare 2001; 7: 56-8 doi: 10.1258/1357633011936732 pmid: 11576493.
  • Patterson V, Hoque F, Vassallo D, Farquharson Roberts M, Swinfen P, Swinfen R. Store-and-forward teleneurology in developing countries. J Telemed Telecare 2001; 7: 52-3 doi: 10.1258/1357633011936714 pmid: 11576491.
  • Vassallo DJ, Hoque F, Roberts MF, Patterson V, Swinfen P, Swinfen R. An evaluation of the first year’s tang with a low-cost telemedicine link in Bangladesh. J Telemed Telecare 2001; 7: 125-38 doi: 10.1258/1357633011936273 pmid: 11346472.
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  • Statement by Nout Wellink on behalf of Hans Hoogervorst | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Spring Meetings 2003

    2003 Spring Meetings: word Releases, Speeches, Committee Papers, Documents and Background Information

    Statements Given on the Occasion of the IMFC MeetingApril 12, 2003

    Documents related to the International Monetary and financial Committee (IMFC) Meeting

    Republic of Armenia and the IMF

    Bulgaria and the IMF

    Bosnia and Herzegovina and the IMF

    Cyprus and the IMF

    Georgia and the IMF

    Republic of Croatia and the IMF

    Israel and the IMF

    Republic of Moldova and the IMF

    former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and the IMF

    Kingdom of the Netherlands-Netherlands and the IMF

    Romania and the IMF

    Ukraine and the IMF

    Statement by Nout Wellink on behalf of Hans HoogervorstMinister of Finance of the Netherlands International Monetary and financial CommitteeWashington D.C., April 12, 2003Representing the constituency consisting of Armenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Georgia, Israel, Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, the Netherlands, Romania, and Ukraine.

    Uncertainty overshadows the world economy

    Whereas over the past year the world economy has performed better than expected, prospects for 2003 maintain deteriorated. Forecasts maintain been adjusted downwards, in line with the unfavorable development of leading indicators. The global economy has been and still is in the grip of uncertainty, which makes accurate assessments of current and future growth very difficult. While the war has undoubtedly taken its toll on the world economy, there are besides a number of other problems that might further temper growth prospects. One of them relates to financial market developments. Both short-term and long-term interest rates maintain dropped significantly, due to expansionary monetary policy measures and because many investors are changing their portfolio mix, substituting bonds for shares. In the expectation of future interest rate increases, which could negatively handle the financial sector, there is a requisite for proximate monitoring and supervision. Higher interest rates would besides imply higher servicing costs of government debt. This underscores the importance to sustain government spending under control and - for the EU countries - to meet the requirements in the Stability and Growth Pact.

    Another risk is the tall current account deficit of the US in conjunction with the rising government deficit due to the recent tax lop proposal and the rising expenditures related to the strike on Iraq. The "twin-deficit" problem not only calls for balanced policies in the US, but besides requires for other countries to promote robust domestic growth through a deepening of structural reforms. Within Europe, further progress is needed in the framework of the Lisbon process, especially with esteem to the labor market. It is essential to increase labor participation and labor productivity by promoting entrepreneurship, flexible labour markets and investments in scholarship and innovation.

    From a global perspective, the world should subside its dependence on the US as a source of growth. In this respect, there are besides a number of positive developments worth highlighting. First of all, the economic performance in the Asia-Pacific region, notably in China, India and South-Korea, remains impressive with annual growth figures well above 5 percent. Economic growth in EU candidate countries with around 4 percent is besides significantly higher than in advanced economies. The historic agreement reached during the Copenhagen zenith terminal December underscores the progress made over the past decade in transforming these economies into well-functioning market economies. Croatia has meanwhile besides applied for EU-membership. Recent economic performance has besides been relatively pleasurable in the CIS-countries, with especially tall growth for more advanced reformers, such as Armenia, Georgia and Moldova and Ukraine. Finally, African GDP growth is expected to pick up to 4 percent in 2003.

    With doubt overshadowing the world economy, the IMF has an primary role to play. In juncture prevention, it can inspirit reduce uncertainties to manageable risks. In juncture resolution, it can increase the predictability with esteem to the availability of its own resources as well as the predictability of sovereign debt restructuring processes. With esteem to low income countries, the Fund can further help its signaling role towards the international donor community. These messages will exist elaborated below.

    Crisis prevention: reducing doubt to manageable risks

    Given the tall degree of doubt that markets face, the requisite for tall trait surveillance is greater than ever. IMF surveillance is key in reducing uncertainties to manageable risks. In response to the capital account juncture of the 1990s, a noteworthy number of initiatives maintain been introduced to accomplish the international financial system more resilient to crisis. My constituency commends the IMF with these initiatives, particularly in the areas of data provision and dissemination, financial sector surveillance, standards and codes, and debt sustainability assessments, which are reinforced by the IMF's improved transparency policy.1 Taken together, they strengthen accountability and give markets better and more continuous information for decision-making.

    While it is essential that the complex interlinkages between a country's macroeconomic development and the trait of its institutions are acknowledged and monitored, an undue expansion of the scope of IMF surveillance should exist avoided. This not only requires a proper prioritization with esteem to the countries that are being assessed, but besides underscores the requisite to sustain individual surveillance exercises focused on key issues to avoid diluting the Fund's policy advice. More generally, the IMF's role in surveillance activities should exist consistent with its mandate and its competence. Areas that are not convincingly macro-relevant should in principle exist left to other international organizations, notably the World Bank, the OECD or the EU.

    So, maybe the Fund should sometimes enact less, but what it does could still exist done better to ensure that the Fund's advice is sound and has impact. My constituency therefore welcomes the recent guidance for staff on the basis of the 2002 biennial surveillance review. In order to further help the overall effectiveness of the surveillance process, they would dote to emphasize the importance of five concrete measures:

  • Article IV consultation reports are expected to accommodate a brief assessment of staff advice and of the authorities' response to the key policy challenges addressed in previous Article IV reports. To give surveillance even more bite, they intimate that the extent to which countries maintain not followed up on usurp earlier Fund advice is factored into program decisions. Countries that maintain neglected sound policy advice and consequently elude into equipoise of payment problems should maintain an especially convincing program in order to gain access to Fund resources. Such a rehearse will besides foster the accountability of the IMF in delivering transparent and tall trait advice.
  • While preserving the consistency between the program strategy and surveillance, the guidance rightly underscores the requisite for comprehensive assessments that tender a fresh perspective on economic conditions and policies. Consultation cycles for program countries requisite to exist flexible to allow for consultations to hook region at a time when they are most valuable. The detain in the completion of the Article IV reports of Argentina and Uruguay until a recent credit line was more or less agreed upon illustrates that there is still latitude for improvement on this account.
  • The workable risk of "tunnel vision" can besides exist reduced by promoting that surveillance and program missions maintain degree different staff compositions provided there are suitable continuity and coordination safeguards.
  • It should become gauge rehearse that alternative scenarios and workable policy responses are discussed with national authorities in the context of Article IV consultations and reflected upon in the reports. This would enable countries to better anticipate to adverse developments, while fostering greater ownership for policies.
  • Finally, they inspirit the Fund and its members to scurry towards complete publication of Article IV reports, including debt sustainability analyses. Transparency allows peer pressure becoming market pressure. This will promote the adoption of sound policy and adherence to international standards as well as facilitate private parties in assessing risks and thus smoothen the functioning of international markets.
  • Crisis resolution: increasing predictability towards markets

    The on-going difficulties in various emerging markets seem to maintain given birth to three recent or renewed initiatives. The first is the recent framework for debt sustainability as portion of both juncture prevention and juncture resolution. It is especially valuable in highlighting the linkages between exchange rate fluctuations and debt dynamics, which reflect a common feature of most countries under stress in for instance Latin America. They ogle forward to the discussion on the review of the framework that is expected to exist available over the next months. The second initiative is the impetus given to the discussion on ways to smooth a debt restructuring process, which is so badly needed in Argentina and seems to maintain started in Uruguay. Third, the Fund's assistance to Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Turkey has revived the discussion on the financing role of the IMF in mitigating financial crises, especially with esteem to exceptional access to Fund resources.

    Starting with the latter, my constituency has consistently argued that it is essential that the Fund is predictable with esteem to the financing it will provide in order to reduce doubt and virtuous hazard. The private sector should contribute to proximate the financing gap of countries in distress. They therefore welcome the Fund's renewed framework for exceptional access in capital account crisis, which establishes substantive criteria, including a clearly sustainable debt, and stronger procedures for conclusion making on exceptional access proposals. In addition to the criteria, they wish to underscore that the member's best efforts to secure private sector involvement in program financing should exist an primary consideration for justifying exceptional access. The best practices of debtor-creditor consultations, creditor coordination and private sector involvement that may exist identified in the context of a Code of Conduct could exist useful in this respect. Concerning the procedures, they particularly value the early consultation of the Executive Board. The framework, however, is only applicable to cases where debts are sustainable.

    In case of unsustainable debts, my constituency supports the two-track approach to help the process of sovereign debt restructuring: the contractual one, based on Collective Action Clauses (CACs) and the statutory one, based on a Sovereign Debt Restructuring Mechanism (SDRM). The recently suggested codes of (good) conduct may usefully complement, but not substitute for, these approaches in guiding the behavior of total parties concerned in the event of debt crises.

    We particularly welcome the Mexican step to introduce CACs into the terms of a recent fresh York-law governed medium-term note issue, and its announcement that it will continue to use CACs in its upcoming bond issues. It is now primary for other sovereign issuers to follow Mexico's lead in order to trigger a true shift in market practices. In this regard, it is worth noting that half of my constituency has been issuing foreign bonds with CACs for quite some time already. terminal year, the EU-members, including the Netherlands, besides committed themselves to involve CACs in government bond issues under foreign jurisdiction.

    We remain convinced that the SDRM, as an ultimum remedium, could accomplish an essential contribution to improving the juncture resolution framework. Here again, increasing predictability will reduce doubt in the markets. The SDRM will provide for a comprehensive approach to debt restructuring that entails a road map for the restructuring process, if intentional approaches of a debtor country and its creditors fail to materialize. They welcome the efforts made so far by the Fund to develop the key features of an SDRM and its ongoing dialogue with market participants and sovereign issuers. They recognize that the design of the mechanism has been adapted to meet the views of the private sector. The changes accomplish the SDRM a mechanism operated by the debtor country and its creditors with a supportive role of the Fund. This role for the Fund in juncture resolution in the context of the SDRM will hook shape mainly through its lending decisions and its debt sustainability analyses. They invite the Fund to continue its drudgery on the technical issues of the SDRM, to consult broadly with total interested parties, and to report to the IMFC.

    Low income countries: strengthening the Fund's signaling function

    Global uncertainties and the detain of economic recovery besides dim the prospects of sustained growth and poverty reduction in low income countries. As the Managing Director recently underlined, the Monterrey Consensus, re-affirmed in Johannesburg, defined two equally strong pillars to achieve the Millennium development Goals (MDGs) by 2015: on the one hand, self-responsibility in developing countries to pursue sound policies and pleasurable governance, matched on the other hand by solidarity on the portion of the international community to provide strong and comprehensive support.2

    Self-responsibility and country ownership are mutually reinforcing, being the essence of the national processes based on Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) which are successfully being developed in a growing number of countries. My constituency supports the Fund's own role in support to sound policies as portion of the processes. While acknowledging the progress, they urge the Fund to better align the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) with the national PRSPs in terms of contents, timing and documentation. More specifically, the Fund can assist countries to bridge the gap between domestic and international resources and policy measures needed to accomplish progress towards the MDGs through its macroeconomic analyses, policy advice and assistance to capacity building. In this context, they value the consideration that is increasingly being given to the macroeconomic implications of growing aid flows to individual countries which may not exist consistent with the country's absorption capacity. Finally, they favor more attention to Poverty and convivial repercussion Analyses (PSIA), an area in which the World Bank is the lead agency in providing technical guidance.

    Solidarity requires a swift realization of the UN target of 0.7 percent of GNP for official development assistance. Both the EU-members and the US maintain committed to increase their development assistance, but for many countries a huge gap remains to exist bridged. Next to aid, trade is crucial to durable poverty reduction. Regretfully, the international trading system remains heavily distorted, and especially biased against developing countries. Markets in which developing countries devour a comparative advantage, such as agricultural products, are among those most protected. As they enter a captious facet in the Doha trade round, rhetoric has to exist matched by action. This is not only a matter of solidarity but besides of enlightened self-interest. Consistent with its mandate, my constituency endorses the Fund's objective to assess in its Article IV reports the extent to which countries keep the conditions for truly open trade regimes.

    The IMF's interactions with low income members maintain an primary signaling office towards other multilateral organizations and bilateral donors. According to the first study by the Independent Evaluation Office, IMF lending arrangements increasingly provide a "seal of approval" on a country's policies and institutions for other sources of financing, notably development aid, to fade forward. Although a rehearse of linking aid to IMF-supported programs may assist the international community in the efficient aid allocation, it bears two primary risks. On the one hand, in order to fulfill the expectation of donors some programs might not meet minimum standards of policy content. The Fund should therefore consistently guard the trait of the program and, hence, the trait of the seal of approval. On the other hand, there is a risk that countries that wish to receive the Fund's advice and monitoring for signaling purposes feel obliged to besides hook the Fund's credit which adds to their already tall repayment obligations. They therefore inspirit donors to accept informal ways of monitoring. It may besides exist worth promoting the use of low access PRGF-arrangements or PRGF-arrangements on a precautionary basis.3 They besides reduce the risk that countries become unnecessarily prolonged users of Fund credit.

    We commend the Fund, together with the World Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and development and the Asian development Bank, with the fruitful Lucerne conference on the seven poorest countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS7-initiative). The conference underlined that achieving ownership of the reform agenda by governments and people, notably through PRSP-processes, is key in assuring implementation of policy and institutional reforms. Equally primary for recovery and future prosperity of the minuscule and relatively isolated CIS-7 economies are successful regional cooperation and improved access to markets. They ogle forward to further progress as well as to the evaluation of the CIS7-initiative.

    Finally, they hook note of the drudgery by the Fund and the Bank to enhance the participation of developing countries and countries in transition in decision-making. They support an increase in the staffing of the two largest multi-country constituencies. They could besides further explore other avenues, including an increase of basic votes, an expansion of staff training and an improvement of the administrative capacity at country flat as well as strengthening the PRSP-process. In the context of this discussion, they wish to emphasize the benefits of multi-country constituencies consisting of both creditor and debtor countries. Their constituency, as well as others, are pleasurable examples of promoting the interest of both groups of countries. On the one side, they total profit from the substantial partake of voting rights of mixed constituencies, whereas on the other, transfers of scholarship and expertise within the constituency can support capacity edifice in the countries themselves. Finally, multi-country constituencies maintain a bridging office and obviate polarisation of discussions between debtor and creditor countries in the Executive Board. In this process, multi-country constituencies enhance ownership of Fund decisions and policies by total members.

    1 Macedonia, Moldova, the Netherlands and Romania will follow Armenia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Georgia, Israel and Ukraine as the next countries in their constituency to enact an FSAP.

    2The Role of the IMF in a Globalizing World Economy, Remarks by Horst Köhler at the Fourth Annual Conference of the Parliamentary Network on the World Bank, March 2003.

    3 In comparison, there maintain been nearly fifty precautionary stand-by arrangements for middle-income countries in the era 1990-2003.



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