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642-383 Cisco Express Foundation for field Engineers V 1.2

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642-383 exam Dumps Source : Cisco Express Foundation for field Engineers V 1.2

Test Code : 642-383
Test designation : Cisco Express Foundation for field Engineers V 1.2
Vendor designation : Cisco
practice test : 138 real Questions

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Cisco Cisco Express Foundation for

Cisco NX-OS and SaltStack for adventure-driven facts focus Automation and management | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

commercial enterprise IT today spends an incredible quantity of components maintaining the network. These supplies may otherwise breathe used to drive innovation. When IT infrastructure is simply too rigid or advanced to sustain with novel commerce calls for, you emerge as with a bottleneck, and enterprise suffers. To alleviate these problems, the Cisco Nexus facts focus offers an business-leading, wealthy ecosystem of automation solutions, with the foundation being Cisco NX-OS, the trade’s most extensible, open, and programmable network working rig for data centers.

With that in mind, we're completely satisfied to proclaim a brand novel automation answer partnership between Cisco NX-OS and SaltStack, which offers enjoyable, experience-driven automation to resolve complicated information core network security and configuration management challenges.

mainly, Cisco NX-OS gives an open abstraction layer that permits SaltStack minions to breathe hosted on Nexus switches inside the guestshell, or as a piece of an off-container answer, leveraging the Salt Proxy Minion. customers can maneuver the entire Nexus portfolio through a typical interface, enabling conclusion-to-conclusion automation. by using presenting a common simplified solution, IT teams can focus of attention on innovating and optimizing network up-instances, minimizing downtime and extending terminate person pride.

“SaltStack exists to champion enterprise IT organizations manage and cozy every component of their digital enterprise infrastructure. They carry out that through offering options to tackle the most pressing challenges in IT operations, network operations, and safety operations. they are seeing Great claim from their customers to exercise SaltStack intelligent, adventure-pushed automation to involved utility-defined networks. To this conclusion, they are extremely joyful to breathe working carefully with Cisco to create a special providing above complete designed to automate the control of network infrastructure that is growing exponentially 12 months over yr.”

–  Marc Chenn, SaltStack CEO

 

“Cisco is working carefully with customers to optimize IT infrastructure uptime and simplify operations through intent-based mostly community fabric automation. assist for SaltStack experience-driven automation with Cisco NX-OS offers clients an preference to control colossal-scale Nexus fabric in a programmatic way, from defining configurations to monitoring and remediating considerations.”

Thomas Scheibe – VP, Cisco statistics middle

Case examine video: How IBM Cloud uses SaltStack and Cisco for network automation at big scale

SaltStack adventure-pushed automation for the Cisco NX-OS community operating rig is now available from the SaltStack commercial enterprise platform. This ingenious IT automation solution includes parallel execution of device commands to deliver extraordinary velocity and scale when managing network infrastructure.

“Cisco and SaltStack absorb delivered exciting and unified command and manage of any component of the utility-described information middle to supply commercial enterprise corporations equivalent to IBM Cloud the capacity to summary the management and security of their production networks at big scale.”

–  Thomas Hatch, SaltStack CTO

 materials and documentation: 

  • SaltStack blog post
  • IBM Cloud case contemplate at video
  • Execution Module
  • State Module
  • Documentation
  • Off-container container for Salt grasp and NX-OS apps
  • On-field container for Salt Minion on Nexus 9000

  • Cisco bets $660M on silicon-photonics company Luxtera | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Cisco says it is buying optical-semiconductor company Luxtera for $660 million and may construct its silicon photonics into future commerce statistics-centre, webscale, and repair-issuer networking equipment.

    This photonic expertise is primary to sustain with projected huge increases in IP site visitors extent over the subsequent four years, in keeping with Cisco's networking chief.

    "Optics is a primary expertise to enable this future. Coupled with their silicon and optics innovation, Luxtera will permit their purchasers to build the largest, fastest and top-rated networks on the earth," said David Goeckeler, government vice chairman and common supervisor, Networking and protection enterprise at Cisco

    Cisco currently projected that by means of 2022, IP traffic worldwide will triple from 2017 volumes to four.8 zettabytes per 12 months by means of 2022, and there might breathe four.eight billion web users by using 2022, up from three.four billion in 2017.

    Upon completion of the deal for the privately held Luxtera, its personnel will breathe a piece of Cisco's optics enterprise below Goeckeler.

    in line with a Bloomberg file on the deal, Luxtera develops silicon-photonics know-how, a manner of changing electronic tips into photons and carrying it over fibre-optic cables without slow into semiconductors, greatly speeding the switch of records.

    other rig is usually necessary to spin mild from fibre optic cables into the digital alerts essential to elope computers.

    Luxtera says it could compose a tall quantity of chips that may carry out that job, some thing that’s eluded other groups in the commerce for years.

    The enterprise competes with Finisar, utilized Optoelectronics, and others. Cisco's bid reportedly beat out interest from Intel and Broadcom, based on Bloomberg.

    Cisco stated allotted cloud, mobility, and information superhighway of things (IoT) applications are creating an unprecedented strain on current communications infrastructure and that the combination of Cisco's and Luxtera's capabilities in 100GbE/400GbE optics, silicon, and system expertise will let purchasers build future-proof networks optimised for efficiency, reliability, and value.

    Cisco further said the mixing of Luxtera and Cisco's optical transceiver portfolio will broaden Cisco's offering of 100GbE and 400GbE optics.

    “As gadget port capability increases from 100GbE to 400GbE and beyond, optics plays an increasingly Important position in addressing community infrastructure constraints, especially density and vitality necessities,” wrote Rob Salvagno, Cisco vp of company enterprise pile in a weblog in regards to the deal.

    “The aggregate of Cisco’s and Luxtera’s capabilities in 100GbE/400GbE optics, silicon and technique know-how will allow clients to build future-proof networks optimized for efficiency, reliability and value.”

    Cisco in November introduced high-velocity Ethernet to the statistics centre with four novel switches it stated will finally become the foundation of high-density, intent-based mostly networks.

    the novel 400G Ethernet switches tumble into two camps: Two containers in the Nexus 9000 family geared toward tremendous-commercial enterprise community shoppers and two within the 3400-S classification focused at excessive-bandwidth hyperscale clients.

    The deal can breathe Cisco’s sixth of the yr, which has viewed it buy Ensoft, Duo protection, July systems, Accompany, and Skyport prior this 12 months.

    be a piece of the publication!

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    Tags ciscoLuxtera


    Cisco Buys Silicon Photonics commerce Luxtera for $660 Million | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Cisco pays $660 million in cash and assumed equity awards for the acquisition of privately-held Luxtera. The Carlsbad, California, semiconductor enterprise uses silicon photonics to build integrated optics capabilities for hyperscalers, commerce data centers, and repair suppliers.

    Cisco plans to incorporate Luxtera’s know-how throughout its intent-based mostly networking portfolio, which spans records core and service provider markets.

    David Goeckeler, govt vice chairman and widespread supervisor of Cisco’s networking and protection company, observed in an announcement that world information superhighway site visitors is increasing exponentially and “optics is a basic know-how” to permit the fastest networks.

    Cisco certainly cited integration of Luxtera’s know-how into its 100GbE and 400GbE portfolios. As gadget port capability raises to 400GbE and past, optics plays an increasingly captious role in addressing density and power necessities, based on the enterprise.

    In late October Cisco introduced 400G switches that target hyperscale cloud providers, huge enterprise data centers, and telecommunications suppliers relocating to 5G. The enterprise changed into actually a bit late to the 400G birthday party. Its rivals Arista and Juniper had already announced 400GbE switches prior within the yr.

    “whereas tons of the recent focal point has been on their software transition, it goes devoid of proverb that world-type hardware, coupled with their funding in silicon and optics, is on the coronary heart of our intent-based networking strategy,” spoke of Rob Salvagno, Cisco’s VP of corporate commerce building, in a blog.

    Luxtera’s silicon photonics expertise integrates tall performance optics without slow with silicon electronics, bringing what it calls “fiber to the chip” connectivity. This speeds the transfer of information between servers.

    at the Open Networking basis’s connect adventure in Santa Clara, California, earlier this month, Google Fellow Amin Vahdat emphasised the magnitude of statistics switch speeds. He talked about that each year Google raises the means of its community. And the commerce is concerned concerning the waning of Moore’s legislation. One occasion for increasing the velocity of data between servers is cluster computing.

    requested about silicon photonics, Vahdat referred to, “We’re excited about silicon photonics. It’s still on the cusp of being important.”

    Cisco’s acquisition of Luxtera is expected to close before may also of 2019. Luxtera employs from 50-100 people, in response to Crunchbase, and it’s raised about $a hundred thirty million throughout its 17 years of existence. Luxtera personnel will breathe a piece of Cisco’s optics company below Goeckeler.


    642-383 Cisco Express Foundation for field Engineers V 1.2

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    Killexams.com 642-383 Dumps and real Questions

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    642-383 exam Dumps Source : Cisco Express Foundation for field Engineers V 1.2

    Test Code : 642-383
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    practice test : 138 real Questions

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    Full text of Xi Jinping's report at 19th CPC National Congress | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Secure a conclusive conquest in pile a Moderately Prosperous

    Society in complete Respects and Strive for the Great Success of

    Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a novel Era

    Delivered at the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China

    October 18, 2017

    Xi Jinping

    Comrades,

    On behalf of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, I will now deliver a report to the 19th National Congress.

    The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China is a meeting of Great import taking region during the conclusive stage in pile a moderately prosperous society in complete respects and at a captious minute as socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a novel era.

    The theme of the Congress is: Remain accurate to their original aspiration and preserve their mission firmly in mind, hold tall the banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, secure a conclusive conquest in pile a moderately prosperous society in complete respects, strive for the Great success of socialism with Chinese characteristics for a novel era, and travail tirelessly to realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation.

    Never forget why you started, and you can accomplish your mission. The original aspiration and the mission of Chinese Communists is to quest happiness for the Chinese people and rejuvenation for the Chinese nation. This original aspiration, this mission, is what inspires Chinese Communists to advance. In their Party, each and every one of us must always breathe the very breath as the people, participate the very future, and sojourn truly connected to them. The aspirations of the people to live a better life must always breathe the focus of their efforts. They must preserve on striving with endless energy toward the Great goal of national rejuvenation.

    Both China and the world are in the midst of profound and involved changes. China is still in an Important era of strategic occasion for development; the prospects are lustrous but the challenges are severe. complete comrades must aim tall and contemplate far, breathe alert to dangers even in times of calm, absorb the courage to pursue reform and fracture novel ground, and never become hardened to change or inactive. They will unite the Chinese people of complete ethnic groups and lead them to a conclusive conquest in pile a moderately prosperous society in complete respects and in the drive to secure the success of socialism with Chinese characteristics for a novel era.

    I. The Past Five Years: Their travail and Historic Change

    The five years since the 18th National Congress absorb been a truly remarkable five years in the course of the development of the Party and the country. Outside China, they absorb been confronted with sluggish global economic recovery, frequent outbreaks of regional conflicts and disturbances, and intensifying global issues. At home, they absorb encountered profound changes as China has entered a novel traditional in economic development. They absorb upheld the underlying principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability, risen to challenges, pioneered and pushed ahead, and made historic achievements in reform, opening up, and socialist modernization.

    To attach the guiding principles from their 18th National Congress into action, the Party Central Committee has held seven plenary sessions. There, decisions and plans were made on issues of major importance, from reforming the institutions and transforming the functions of government to deepening reform in complete areas, advancing law-based governance, formulating the 13th Five-Year Plan, and seeing governance over the Party is exercised fully and with rigor. In the past five years, they absorb implemented the five-sphere integrated objective and the four-pronged comprehensive strategy, fulfilled the goals of the 12th Five-Year Plan, and made smooth progress in implementing the 13th Five-Year Plan. On complete fronts novel advances absorb been made for the cause of the Party and the country.

    * They absorb made major achievements in economic development.

    We absorb remained committed to the novel development philosophy, adopted the birthright approach to development, and endeavored to transform the growth model. The result has been a constant improvement in the character and result of development. The economy has maintained a medium-high growth rate, making China a leader among the major economies. With the indecent domestic product rising from 54 trillion to 80 trillion yuan, China has maintained its position as the world's second largest economy and contributed more than 30 percent of global economic growth. Supply-side structural reform has made further headway, bringing a constant improvement in the economic structure. Emerging industries dote the digital economy are thriving; the construction of high-speed railways, highways, bridges, ports, airports, and other types of infrastructure has picked up pace. Agricultural modernization has steadily advanced, with annual grain production reaching 600 million metric tons. The flush of urbanization has risen by an annual objective of 1.2 percentage points, and more than 80 million people who absorb moved from bucolic to urban areas absorb gained permanent urban residency. Regional development has become more balanced; the Belt and Road Initiative, the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, and the development of the Yangtze Economic Belt absorb complete made notable progress. Through devoting Great energy to implementing the innovation-driven development strategy, they absorb seen much accomplished toward making China a country of innovators, with major advances made in science and technology, including the successful launch of Tiangong-2 space lab, the commissioning of the deep-sea manned submersible Jiaolong and of the five-hundred-meter aperture spherical telescope (FAST) Tianyan, the launch of the murky matter probe satellite Wukong and the quantum science satellite Mozi, and the test flight of the airliner C919. Construction on islands and reefs in the South China Sea has seen constant progress. The novel institutions of the open economy absorb been steadily improved. China now leads the world in trade, outbound investment, and foreign exchange reserves.

    * They absorb made major breakthroughs in deepening reform.

    We absorb taken comprehensive steps to deepen reform swiftly but steadily, and worked with resolve to remove institutional barriers in complete areas. They absorb taken moves across the board, achieved breakthroughs in many areas, and made further progress in reform. They absorb pursued reform in a more systematic, holistic, and coordinated way, increasing its coverage and depth. Thanks to the launch of over 1,500 reform measures, breakthroughs absorb been made in key areas, and common frameworks for reform absorb been established in major fields. The system of socialism with Chinese characteristics has been further improved, with notable progress made in modernizing China's system and capacity for governance. Throughout society, development is plenary of vitality and is driven by greater creativity.

    * They absorb taken major steps in developing democracy and the rule of law.

    We absorb actively developed socialist democracy and advanced law-based governance. They absorb stepped up institution pile across the board to compose integrated advances in Party leadership, the running of the country by the people, and law-based governance; and they absorb continuously improved the institutions and mechanisms by which the Party exercises leadership. constant progress has been made in enhancing socialist democracy; intraparty democracy has been expanded, and socialist consultative democracy is flourishing. The patriotic united front has been consolidated and developed, and novel approaches absorb been adopted for travail related to ethnic and pious affairs. Further progress has been made in ensuring their legislation is sound, law enforcement is strict, the administration of justice is impartial, and the law is observed by everyone. Their efforts to build a country, government, and society based on the rule of law absorb been mutually reinforcing; the system of distinctively Chinese socialist rule of law has been steadily improved; and public awareness of the rule of law has risen markedly. obliging progress has been made in piloting the reform of the national supervision system, and efficient measures absorb been taken to reform the system of government administration and the judicial system, and to develop systems to apply checks and oversight over the exercise of power.

    * They absorb made significant advances on the abstract and cultural fronts.

    We absorb strengthened Party leadership over ideological travail and explored novel ground in advancing Party related theories. The import of Marxism as a guiding ideology is better appreciated. Socialism with Chinese characteristics and the Chinese Dream absorb been embraced by their people. Core socialist values and fine traditional Chinese culture are alive in the people's hearts. Initiatives to better public decomrum and ethical standards absorb proved successful. Public cultural services absorb been improved; expertise and literature are thriving, and cultural programs and industries are going strong. The development, administration, and functioning of internet services absorb been enhanced. Fitness-for-All programs and competitive sports absorb seen extensive development. Their country's underlying values hold greater appeal than ever before, and the wave of positive energy felt throughout society is building. We, the Chinese people, absorb greater confidence in their own culture. China's cultural soft power and the international influence of Chinese culture absorb increased significantly. There is greater solidarity in thinking both within the Party and throughout society.

    * They absorb steadily improved animate standards.

    Our vision of making development people-centered has been acted on, a gross raft of initiatives to capitalize the people has seen implementation, and the people's sense of fulfillment has grown stronger. conclusive progress has been made in the fight against poverty: more than 60 million people absorb been lifted out of poverty, and the poverty headcount ratio has dropped from 10.2 percent to less than 4 percent. All-round progress has been made in the development of education, with remarkable advances made in the central and western regions and in bucolic areas. Employment has registered constant growth, with an objective of over 13 million urban jobs created each year. Growth of urban and bucolic personal incomes has outpaced economic growth, and the middle-income group has been expanding. A companionable security system covering both urban and bucolic residents has taken shape; both public health and medical services absorb improved markedly. Solid progress has been made in pile government-subsidized housing projects to ensure basic needs are met. companionable governance systems absorb been improved; law and order has been maintained; and national security has been fully enhanced.

    * They absorb made notable progress in pile an ecological civilization.

    We absorb devoted grave energy to ecological conservation. As a result, the entire Party and the gross country absorb become more purposeful and active in pursuing green development, and there has been a lucid shift away from the drift to neglect ecological and environmental protection. Efforts to develop a system for pile an ecological civilization absorb been accelerated; the system of functional zoning has been steadily improved; and progress has been made in piloting the national park system. Across-the-board efforts to conserve resources absorb seen encouraging progress; the intensity of energy and resource consumption has been significantly reduced. Smooth progress has been made in major ecological conservation and restoration projects; and forest coverage has been increased. Ecological and environmental governance has been significantly strengthened, leading to marked improvements in the environment. Taking a driving seat in international cooperation to respond to climate change, China has become an Important participant, contributor, and torchbearer in the global endeavor for ecological civilization.

    * They absorb initiated a novel stage in strengthening and revitalizing the armed forces.

    With a view to realizing the Chinese Dream and the dream of pile a powerful military, they absorb developed a strategy for the military under novel circumstances, and absorb made every application to modernize national defense and the armed forces. They convened the Gutian military political travail meeting to resuscitate and pass on the proud traditions and fine conduct of their Party and their armed forces, and absorb seen a sturdy improvement in the political ecosystem of the people's forces. Historic breakthroughs absorb been made in reforming national defense and the armed forces: a novel military structure has been established with the Central Military Commission exercising overall leadership, the theater commands liable for military operations, and the services focusing on developing capabilities. This represents a revolutionary restructuring of the organization and the services of the people's armed forces. They absorb strengthened military training and war preparedness, and undertaken major missions related to the protection of maritime rights, countering terrorism, maintaining stability, disaster rescue and relief, international peacekeeping, escort services in the Gulf of Aden, and humanitarian assistance. They absorb stepped up weapons and rig development, and made major progress in enhancing military preparedness. The people's armed forces absorb taken solid strides on the path of pile a powerful military with Chinese characteristics.

    * They absorb made fresh progress in travail related to Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan.

    We absorb fully and faithfully implemented the principle of "one country, two systems," and ensured that the central government exercises its overall jurisdiction over Hong Kong and Macao as mandated by China's Constitution and the basic laws of the two special administrative regions. They absorb thus boosted exchanges and cooperation between the mainland and the two regions and maintained prosperity and stability in Hong Kong and Macao. They absorb upheld the one-China

    principle and the 1992 Consensus, promoted the peaceful development of cross-Straits relations, strengthened cross-Straits economic and cultural exchanges and cooperation, and held a historic meeting between the leaders of the two sides. They absorb responded as preempt to the political developments in Taiwan, resolutely opposed and deterred separatist elements advocating "Taiwan independence," and vigorously safeguarded peace and stability in the Taiwan Straits.

    * They absorb made further progress in China's diplomacy on complete fronts.

    We absorb made all-round efforts in the pursuit of major country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics, thus advancing China's diplomatic agenda in a comprehensive, multilevel, multifaceted passage and creating a benign external environment for China's development. They absorb jointly pursued the Belt and Road Initiative, initiated the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, set up the Silk Road Fund, and hosted the First Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation, the 22nd APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting, the G20 2016 acme in Hangzhou, the BRICS acme in Xiamen, and the Fourth acme of the Conference on Interaction and confidence pile Measures in Asia. China champions the development of a community with a shared future for mankind, and has encouraged the evolution of the global governance system. With this they absorb seen a further rise in China's international influence, capacity to inspire, and power to shape; and China has made Great novel contributions to global peace and development.

    * They absorb achieved remarkable outcomes in ensuring plenary and strict governance over the Party.

    We absorb made sweeping efforts to strengthen Party leadership and Party building, and taken sturdy action to transform lax and infirm governance over the Party. They cheer complete Party members to hold the Party Constitution in Great esteem. They press them to strengthen their consciousness of the exigency to maintain political integrity, arbitrator in big-picture terms, ensue the leadership core, and preserve in alignment, and to uphold the authority of the Central Committee and its centralized, unified leadership. They absorb tightened political discipline and rules to ensure that political responsibility for governance over the Party is fulfilled at each flush of the Party organization.

    We absorb committed to "examining ourselves in the mirror, tidying their attire, taking a bath, and treating their ailments," launched activities to espy members command and act on the Party's mass line, and initiated a shove for the observance of the Three Stricts and Three Earnests.1 They absorb regularized and institutionalized the requirement for complete Party members to absorb a solid understanding of the Party Constitution, Party regulations, and related major policy addresses and to meet Party standards. As a result, the ideals and convictions of complete Party members absorb been strengthened and their sense of Party consciousness has deepened. They absorb adopted standards fitting for a novel era to assess the caliber of officials, and achieved a notable improvement in the passage officials are selected and appointed. Further advances absorb been made in the reform of the institutional framework for Party building, and continuous improvements absorb been made to the system of Party regulations.

    We absorb given top priority to ensuring compliance with Party discipline, and tackled the prominent problems that prompt the strongest public reaction and that threaten to erode the very foundation of the Party's governance. They adopted the eight-point conclusion on improving Party and government conduct, absorb taken tough action against the exercise of formalities for formalities' sake, bureaucratism, hedonism, and extravagance, and absorb staunchly opposed privilege seeking. Disciplinary inspections absorb reduce dote a blade through corruption and misconduct; they absorb covered every Party committee in complete departments at the central and provincial levels. No region has been out of bounds, no ground left unturned, and no tolerance shown in the fight against corruption. They absorb taken firm action to"take out tigers," "swat flies," and "hunt down foxes." The goal of creating a deterrent against corruption has been initially attained; the cage of institutions that prevents corruption has been strengthened; and virtuous defenses against corruption are in the making. The anti-corruption shove has built into a crushing tide, and is being consolidated and developed.

    The achievements of the past five years absorb touched every belt and broken novel ground; the changes in China over the past five years absorb been profound and fundamental. For five years, their Party has demonstrated tremendous political courage and a powerful sense of mission as it has developed novel ideas, novel thinking, and novel strategies, adopted a raft of major principles and policies, launched a host of major initiatives, and pushed ahead with many major tasks. They absorb solved many tough problems that were long on the agenda but never resolved, and accomplished many things that were wanted but never got done. With this, they absorb prompted historic shifts in the cause of the Party and the country. These historic changes will absorb a powerful and far-reaching result on the development of this cause.

    Over the past five years, they absorb acted with courage to confront major risks and tests facing the Party and to address prominent problems within the Party itself. With firm resolve, they absorb tightened discipline and improved Party conduct, fought corruption and punished wrongdoing, and removed grave potential dangers in the Party and the country. As a result, both the intraparty political atmosphere and the political ecosystem of the Party absorb improved markedly. The Party's capacity to innovate, power to unite, and energy to fight absorb complete been significantly strengthened; Party solidarity and solidarity absorb been reinforced, and their date with the people has been greatly improved. Revolutionary tempering has made their Party stronger and it now radiates with Great vitality. With this, efforts to develop the cause of the Party and the country absorb gained a sturdy political underpinning.

    But they must breathe very clear: There are still many inadequacies in their travail and many difficulties and challenges to face. The main ones are as follows.

    Some acute problems caused by unbalanced and inadequate development await solutions; and the character and result of development are not what they should be. China's capacity to innovate needs to breathe stronger, the real economy awaits improvement, and they absorb a long passage to fade in protecting the environment.

    In travail on public wellbeing there are still many areas where they tumble short; and poverty alleviation remains a formidable task. There are still big disparities in development between bucolic and urban areas, between regions, and in income distribution; and their people countenance many difficulties in employment, education, healthcare, housing, and venerable care.

    The flush of civic-mindedness needs further improvement. companionable tensions and problems are intertwined, much remains to breathe done in seeing the country's governance is based in law, and China's system and capacity for governance exigency to breathe further strengthened. Ideological struggle is still complicated, and in national security they countenance novel developments. Some reform plans and major policies and measures exigency to breathe better implemented. Many dimensions of Party pile remain weak. These are complete problems that claim their plenary attention to resolve.

    The achievements of the past five years are the result of the sturdy leadership of the Party Central Committee, and, more importantly, the result of complete Party members and complete the Chinese people pulling together in their pursuit. On behalf of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, I express their heartfelt thanks to the people of complete ethnic groups, to complete other political parties, to people's organizations, and patriotic figures from complete sectors of society, to their fellow countrymen and women in the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions and in Taiwan, to overseas Chinese, and to complete their friends from around the world who absorb shown understanding and champion for China's modernization.

    Comrades,

    In the early days of reform and opening up, the Party made a clarion muster for us to win a path of their own and build socialism with Chinese characteristics. Since that time, the Party has united and led complete the Chinese people in a indefatigable struggle, propelling China into a leading position in terms of economic and technological strength, defense capabilities, and composite national strength. China's international standing has risen as never before. Their Party, their country, their people, their forces, and their nation absorb changed in ways without precedent. The Chinese nation, with an entirely novel posture, now stands tall and firm in the East.

    With decades of difficult work, socialism with Chinese characteristics has crossed the threshold into a novel era. This is a novel historic juncture in China's development.

    This is what socialism with Chinese characteristics entering a novel era means:

    The Chinese nation, which since modern times began had endured so much for so long, has achieved a tremendous transformation: it has stood up, grown rich, and is becoming strong; it has approach to embrace the brilliant prospects of rejuvenation. It means that scientific socialism is plenary of vitality in 21st century China, and that the banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics is now flying tall and proud for complete to see. It means that the path, the theory, the system, and the culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics absorb kept developing, blazing a novel trail for other developing countries to achieve modernization. It offers a novel option for other countries and nations who want to precipitate up their development while preserving their independence; and it offers Chinese wisdom and a Chinese approach to solving the problems facing mankind.

    This novel era will breathe an era of pile on past successes to further promote their cause, and of continuing in a novel historical context to strive for the success of socialism with Chinese characteristics. It will breathe an era of securing a conclusive conquest in pile a moderately prosperous society in complete respects, and of poignant on to all-out efforts to build a Great modern socialist country. It will breathe an era for the Chinese people of complete ethnic groups to travail together and travail difficult to create a better life for themselves and ultimately achieve common prosperity for everyone. It will breathe an era for complete of us, the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation, to strive with one heart to realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation. It will breathe an era that sees China poignant closer to focus stage and making greater contributions to mankind.

    As socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a novel era, the principal contradiction facing Chinese society has evolved. What they now countenance is the contradiction between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people's ever-growing needs for a better life. China has seen the basic needs of over a billion people met, has basically made it possible for people to live decent lives, and will soon bring the pile of a moderately prosperous society to a successful completion. The needs to breathe met for the people to live better lives are increasingly broad. Not only absorb their material and cultural needs grown; their demands for democracy, rule of law, fairness and justice, security, and a better environment are increasing. At the very time, China's overall productive forces absorb significantly improved and in many areas their production capacity leads the world. The more prominent problem is that their development is unbalanced and inadequate. This has become the main constraining factor in meeting the people's increasing needs for a better life.

    We must recognize that the evolution of the principal contradiction facing Chinese society represents a historic shift that affects the gross landscape and that creates many novel demands for the travail of the Party and the country. pile on continued efforts to sustain development, they must dedicate Great energy to addressing development's imbalances and inadequacies, and shove difficult to better the character and result of development. With this, they will breathe better placed to meet the ever-growing economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological needs of their people, and to promote well-rounded human development and all-round companionable progress.

    We must recognize that the evolution of the principal contradiction facing Chinese society does not change their assessment of the present stage of socialism in China. The basic dimension of the Chinese context—that their country is still and will long remain in the primary stage of socialism—has not changed. China's international status as the world's largest developing country has not changed. The gross Party must breathe completely lucid about this fundamental dimension of their national context, and must base their travail on this most Important reality—the primary stage of socialism. They must remain fully committed to the Party's basic line as the source that keeps the Party and the country going and that brings happiness to the people. They must lead and unite the Chinese people of complete ethnic groups in fulfilling the central assignment of economic development. They must uphold the Four Cardinal Principles, continue to reform and open up, breathe self-reliant, hardworking, and enterprising, and strive to build China into a Great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful. Comrades,

    Chinese socialism's entrance into a novel era is, in the history of the development of the People's Republic of China and the history of the development of the Chinese nation, of tremendous importance. In the history of the development of international socialism and the history of the development of human society, it is of tremendous importance. Their entire Party should develop unshakeable confidence, travail difficult and travail well to espy socialism with Chinese characteristics parade even stronger vitality.

    II. The novel Era: The Historic Mission of the Communist Party of China

    A hundred years ago, the salvoes of the October Revolution brought Marxism-Leninism to China. In the scientific truth of Marxism-Leninism, Chinese progressives saw a solution to China's problems. With the advent of modern times, Chinese society became embroiled in vehement upheavals; this was a time of fierce struggle as the Chinese people resisted feudal rule and foreign aggression. It was in the midst of this, in 1921, as Marxism-Leninism was integrated with the Chinese workers' movement, that the Communist Party of China was born. From that minute on, the Chinese people absorb had in the Party a backbone for their pursuit of national independence and liberation, of a stronger and more prosperous country, and of their own happiness; and the mindset of the Chinese people has changed, from passivity to taking the initiative.

    With a history of more than 5,000 years, their nation created a splendid civilization, made remarkable contributions to mankind, and became one of the world's Great nations. But with the Opium War of 1840, China was plunged into the darkness of domestic turmoil and foreign aggression; its people, ravaged by war, saw their homeland torn apart and lived in poverty and despair. With tenacity and heroism, countless dedicated patriots fought, pressed ahead against the odds, and tried every possible means to quest the nation's salvation. But despite their efforts, they were powerless to change the nature of society in former China and the plight of the Chinese people.

    National rejuvenation has been the greatest dream of the Chinese people since modern times began. At its founding, the Communist Party of China made realizing Communism its highest exemplar and its ultimate goal, and shouldered the historic mission of national rejuvenation. In pursuing this goal, the Party has united the Chinese people and led them through arduous struggles to epic accomplishments.

    Our Party was deeply watchful that, to achieve national rejuvenation, it was captious to topple the three mountains of imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucrat-capitalism that were oppressing the Chinese people, and realize China's independence, the people's liberation, national reunification, and companionable stability. Their Party united the people and led them in embarking on the birthright revolutionary path, using bucolic areas to encircle the cities and seizing state power with military force. They completed the novel Democratic Revolution through 28 years of painful struggle, and founded the People's Republic of China in 1949, thus marking China's Great transition from a millennia-old feudal autocracy to a people's democracy.

    Our Party was deeply watchful that, to achieve national rejuvenation, it was essential to establish an advanced companionable system that fits China's reality. It united the people and led them in completing socialist revolution, establishing socialism as China's basic system, and advancing socialist construction. This completed the broadest and most profound companionable transformation in the history of the Chinese nation. It created the fundamental political conditions and the institutional foundation for achieving complete development and progress in China today. Thus was made a Great transition: The Chinese nation reversed its kismet from the continuous decline of modern times to constant progress toward prosperity and strength.

    Our Party was deeply watchful that, to achieve national rejuvenation, it was imperative to ensue the tide of the times, respond to the wishes of the people, and absorb the courage to reform and open; and this awareness created a powerful obligate for advancing the cause of the Party and the people. Their Party united the people and led them in launching the Great novel revolution of reform and opening up, in removing complete ideological and institutional barriers to their country and nation's development, and in embarking on the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Thus was China able to stride ahead to snare up with the times.

    Over the past 96 years, to accomplish the historic mission of national rejuvenation, whether in times of weakness or strength, whether in times of adversity or smooth sailing, their Party has never forgotten its founding mission, nor wavered in its pursuit. It has united the people and led them in conquering countless challenges, making huge sacrifices, meeting setbacks squarely, and courageously righting wrongs. Thus they have, time and again, overcome the seemingly insurmountable and created miracle upon miracle.

    Comrades,

    Today, they are closer, more confident, and more capable than ever before of making the goal of national rejuvenation a reality.

    As the Chinese proverb goes, the terminal leg of a journey marks the halfway point. Achieving national rejuvenation will breathe no walk in the park; it will win more than drum beating and gong clanging to regain there. Every one of us in the Party must breathe prepared to travail even harder toward this goal.

    Realizing their Great dream demands a Great struggle. It is in the movement of contradictions that a society advances; where there is contradiction there is struggle. If their Party is to unite and lead the people to effectively respond to major challenges, withstand major risks, overcome major obstacles, and address major conflicts, it must undertake a Great struggle with many novel synchronous features. complete thinking and behavior in the vein of joy seeking, inaction and sloth, and problem avoidance are unacceptable.

    Every one of us in the Party must carry out more to uphold Party leadership and the Chinese socialist system, and resolutely contest complete statements and actions that undermine, distort, or negate them. They must carry out more to protect their people's interests, and firmly contest complete moves that damage their interests or attach distance between the Party and the people. They must carry out more to channel their energies toward the synchronous current of reform and innovation, and resolvedly address deep-rooted problems. They must carry out more to safeguard China's sovereignty, security, and development interests, and staunchly contest complete attempts to split China or undermine its ethnic solidarity and companionable harmony and stability. They must carry out more to guard against complete kinds of risks, and travail determinedly to prevail over every political, economic, cultural, social, and natural difficulty and challenge.

    Every Party member must fully esteem the long-term, complex, and onerous nature of this Great struggle; they must breathe ready to fight, build their ability, and preserve striving to secure novel victories in this Great struggle.

    Realizing their Great dream demands a Great project. This project is the Great novel project of Party pile that is just getting into plenary swing. As history has shown and will continue to suffer witness to, without the leadership of the Communist Party of China, national rejuvenation would breathe just wishful thinking. To remain the vanguard of the times, the backbone of the nation, and a Marxist governing party, their Party must always hold itself to the highest standards. Every Party member must breathe more actively involved in enhancing Party consciousness, and demonstrate commitment to Party principles. They must absorb the courage to countenance problems squarely, breathe braced for the pain, act to remove whatever undermines the Party's purity and advanced nature, and rid ourselves of any virus that erodes the Party's health. They must preserve on strengthening the Party's capacity to lead politically, to steer through theory, to organize the people, and to inspire society, thus ensuring that the Party's Great vitality and sturdy capacity are forever maintained.

    Realizing their Great dream demands a Great cause. Socialism with Chinese characteristics has been the focus of complete of the Party's theories and exercise since reform and opening up began. It is the fundamental achievement of their Party and their people made through countless hardships at huge cost. The path of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the only path to socialist modernization and a better life for the people. The theory of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the birthright theory to steer the Party and people to realize national rejuvenation. The system of socialism with Chinese characteristics provides the fundamental institutional guarantee for progress and development in synchronous China. The culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics is a powerful source of might that inspires complete members of the Party and the people of complete ethnic groups in China. Their gross Party must strengthen their confidence in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics. They must neither retrace their steps to the rigidity and isolation of the past, nor win the wrong spin by changing their nature and abandoning their system. They must maintain their political orientation, carry out the obliging solid travail that sees their country thrive, and continue to uphold and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics.

    This Great struggle, Great project, Great cause, and Great dream are closely connected, tide seamlessly into each other, and are mutually reinforcing. Among them, the Great novel project of Party pile plays the conclusive role. complete travail to promote this project must fade hand in hand with that geared toward the struggle, the cause, and the dream. They must espy that as history progresses and the world undergoes profound changes, the Party remains always ahead of the times; that as history progresses and they respond to risks and tests at home and abroad, the Party remains always the backbone of the nation; and that as history progresses and they continue to uphold and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, the Party remains always a powerful leadership core.

    Comrades,

    Our mission is a muster to action; their mission steers the course to the future. They must live up to the reliance the people absorb placed in us and prove ourselves worthy of history's choice. In the Great endeavors of pile socialism with Chinese characteristics in the novel era, let us regain behind the sturdy leadership of the Party and engage in a tenacious struggle. Let complete of us, the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation, approach together, preserve going, and create a mighty obligate that enables us to realize the Chinese Dream.

    III. The Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a novel Era and the Basic Policy

    Since their 18th National Congress, changes both in and outside China, and the progress made in complete areas of China's endeavors, absorb presented us with a profound question—the question of an era. Their answer must breathe a systematic combination of theory and exercise and must address what benevolent of socialism with Chinese characteristics the novel era requires us to uphold and develop, and how they should fade about doing it. This involves fundamental issues dote the overarching objectives, tasks, plan, and strategy for upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics in the novel era; dote the direction, model, and driving obligate of development, and the strategic steps, external conditions, and political guarantees. As well as this, to uphold and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, they should, based on novel practice, undertake abstract analysis and produce policy guidance on the economy, political affairs, rule of law, science and technology, culture, education, the wellbeing of their people, ethnic and pious affairs, companionable development, ecological conservation, national security, defense and the armed forces, the principle of "one country, two systems" and national reunification, the united front, foreign affairs, and Party building.

    In answering this question, their Party has been guided by Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, and the Scientific Outlook on Development. It has continued to free their minds, quest truth from facts, dawdle with the times, and apply a realistic and pragmatic approach. In answering this question, their Party has continued to uphold dialectical and historical materialism; has considered carefully the novel conditions of the era and the novel requirements of practice; and has adopted an entirely novel perspective to deepen its understanding of the laws that underlie governance by a Communist party, the development of socialism, and the evolution of human society. It has worked difficult to undertake abstract explorations, and has achieved major abstract innovations, ultimately giving shape to the Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a novel Era.

    The Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a novel Era makes the following things clear:

     * It makes lucid that the overarching goal of upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics is to realize socialist modernization and national rejuvenation, and, that on the basis of finishing the pile of a moderately prosperous society in complete respects, a two-step approach should breathe taken to build China into a Great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and radiant by the middle of the century.

     * It makes lucid that the principal contradiction facing Chinese society in the novel era is that between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people's ever-growing needs for a better life. They must therefore continue commitment to their people-centered philosophy of development, and travail to promote well-rounded human development and common prosperity for everyone.

     * It makes lucid that the overall objective for pile socialism with Chinese characteristics is the five-sphere integrated plan, and the overall strategy is the four-pronged comprehensive strategy. It highlights the import of fostering stronger confidence in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

     * It makes lucid that the overall goal of deepening reform in every field is to better and develop the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics and modernize China's system and capacity for governance.

     * It makes lucid that the overall goal of comprehensively advancing law-based governance is to establish a system of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics and build a country of socialist rule of law.

     * It makes lucid that the Party's goal of pile a sturdy military in the novel era is to build the people's forces into world-class forces that obey the Party's command, can fight and win, and maintain excellent conduct.

     * It makes lucid that major country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics aims to foster a novel nature of international relations and build a community with a shared future for mankind.

     * It makes lucid that the defining feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the leadership of the Communist Party of China; the greatest might of the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the leadership of the Communist Party of China; the Party is the highest obligate for political leadership. It sets forth the common requirements for Party pile in the novel era and underlines the import of political travail in Party building.

    The Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a novel Era builds on and further enriches Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, and the Scientific Outlook on Development. It represents the latest achievement in adapting Marxism to the Chinese context and encapsulates the practical experience and collective wisdom of their Party and the people. It is an Important component of the theory of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and a steer to action for complete their members and complete the Chinese people as they strive to achieve national rejuvenation. This Thought must breathe adhered to and steadily developed on a long-term basis.

    Everyone in the Party should develop a obliging grasp of the essence and rich implications of the Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a novel Era and fully and faithfully apply it in complete their work.

    1. Ensuring Party leadership over complete work

    The Party exercises overall leadership over complete areas of endeavor in every piece of the country. They must strengthen their consciousness of the exigency to maintain political integrity, arbitrator in big-picture terms, ensue the leadership core, and preserve in alignment. They must travail harder to uphold the authority and centralized, unified leadership of the Central Committee, and closely ensue the Central Committee in terms of their thinking, political orientation, and actions. They must better the institutions and mechanisms for upholding Party leadership, remain committed to the underlying principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability, and ensure coordinated implementation of the five-sphere integrated objective and the four-pronged comprehensive strategy. They must strengthen the Party's capacity and resolve to chart their course, craft overall plans, design policy, and promote reform; and they must ensure the Party always provides overall leadership and coordinates the efforts of complete involved.

    2. Committing to a people-centered approach

    The people are the creators of history; they are the fundamental obligate that determines their Party and country's future. They must ensure the principal status of the people, and adhere to the Party's commitment to serving the public obliging and exercising power in the interests of the people. They must observe the Party's fundamental purpose of wholeheartedly serving the people, and attach into exercise the Party's mass line in complete aspects of governance. They must respect as their goal the people's aspirations to live a better life, and rely on the people to dawdle history forward.

    3. Continuing to comprehensively deepen reform

    Only with socialism can they save China; only with reform and opening can they develop China, develop socialism, and develop Marxism. They must uphold and better the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics and continue to modernize China's system and capacity for governance. They must absorb the determination to regain rid of complete outdated thinking and ideas and complete institutional ailments, and to fracture through the blockades of vested interests. They should draw on the achievements of other civilizations, develop a set of institutions that are well conceived, fully built, procedure based, and efficiently functioning, and carry out plenary justice to the strengths of China's socialist system.

    4. Adopting a novel vision for development

    Development is the underpinning and the key for solving complete their country's problems; their development must breathe sound development. They must pursue with firmness of purpose the vision of innovative, coordinated, green, and open development that is for everyone. They must uphold and better China's basic socialist economic system and socialist distribution system. There must breathe no irresolution about working to consolidate and develop the public sector; and there must breathe no irresolution about working to encourage, support, and steer the development of the non-public sector. They must espy that the market plays the conclusive role in resource allocation, the government plays its role better, and novel industrialization, IT application, urbanization, and agricultural modernization fade hand in hand. They must actively participate in and promote economic globalization, develop an open economy of higher standards, and continue to increase China's economic power and composite strength.

    5. Seeing that the people elope the country

    Commitment to the organic solidarity of Party leadership, the running of the country by the people, and law-based governance is a natural component of socialist political advancement. They must preserve to the path of socialist political advancement with Chinese characteristics; uphold and better the system of people's congresses, the system of Party-led multiparty cooperation and political consultation, the system of regional ethnic autonomy, and the system of community-level self-governance; and consolidate and develop the broadest possible patriotic united front. They should develop socialist consultative democracy, better their democratic institutions, diversify their forms of democracy, and establish more democratic channels. They must espy to it that the principle of the people running the country is attach into exercise in China's political and companionable activities.

    6. Ensuring every dimension of governance is law-based

    Law-based governance is an essential requirement and Important guarantee for socialism with Chinese characteristics. They must exercise Party leadership at every point in the process and over every dimension of law-based governance, and breathe fully committed to promoting socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics. They must better the Chinese socialist system of laws, at the heart of which is the Constitution; establish a Chinese system of socialist rule of law; build a socialist country based on the rule of law; and develop Chinese socialist rule of law theory.

    We must pursue coordinated progress in law-based governance, law-based exercise of state power, and law-based government administration, and promote the integrated development of rule of law for the country, the government, and society. They must continue to promote a combination of rule of law and rule of virtue, and combine law-based governance of the country and rule-based governance over the Party. They must further the reform of the judicial system, and strengthen rule of law awareness among complete their people while also enhancing their virtuous integrity.

    7. Upholding core socialist values

    Cultural confidence represents a fundamental and profound obligate that sustains the development of a country and a nation. They must uphold Marxism, firm up and further build the exemplar of Communism and a shared exemplar of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and nurse and exercise core socialist values, while making continued and greater efforts to maintain the initiative and ensure they absorb their affirm in the realm of ideology. They must promote the creative evolution and development of fine traditional Chinese culture, espy their revolutionary culture remains alive and strong, and develop an advanced socialist culture. They should cherish their cultural roots, draw on other cultures, and breathe forward-thinking. They should carry out more to foster a Chinese spirit, Chinese values, and Chinese might to provide a source of cultural and virtuous guidance for their people.

    8. Ensuring and improving animate standards through development

    The wellbeing of the people is the fundamental goal of development. They must carry out more to better the lives and address the concerns of the people, and exhaust development to strengthen areas of weakness and promote companionable fairness and justice. They should compose constant progress in ensuring people's access to childcare, education, employment, medical services, venerable care, housing, and companionable assistance. They will intensify poverty alleviation, espy that complete their people absorb a greater sense of fulfillment as they contribute to and gain from development, and continue to promote well-rounded human development and common prosperity for everyone. They will continue the Peaceful China initiative, strengthen and develop novel forms of companionable governance, and ensure companionable harmony and stability. They must travail difficult to espy that their country enjoys enduring peace and stability and their people live and travail in contentment.

    9. Ensuring harmony between human and nature

    Building an ecological civilization is vital to sustain the Chinese nation's development. They must realize that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets and act on this understanding, implement their fundamental national policy of conserving resources and protecting the environment, and cherish the environment as they cherish their own lives. They will adopt a holistic approach to conserving their mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, lakes, and grasslands, implement the strictest possible systems for environmental protection, and develop eco-friendly growth models and ways of life.

    We must pursue a model of sustainable development featuring increased production, higher animate standards, and healthy ecosystems. They must continue the radiant China initiative to create obliging working and animate environments for their people and play their piece in ensuring global ecological security.

    10. Pursuing a holistic approach to national security

    We should ensure both development and security and breathe ever ready to protect against potential dangers in time of peace. This is a major principle underlying the Party's governance. They must attach national interests first, win protecting their people's security as their mission and safeguarding political security as a fundamental task, and ensure both internal and external security, homeland and public security, traditional and non-traditional security, and China's own and common security. They will better their systems and institutions and enhance capacity-building for national security, and resolutely safeguard China's sovereignty, security, and development interests.

    11. Upholding absolute Party leadership over the people's armed forces

    Building people's forces that obey the Party's command, can fight and win, and maintain excellent conduct is strategically Important to achieving the two centenary goals and national rejuvenation. To realize the Party's goal of pile a powerful military in the novel era, they must fully implement the fundamental principles and systems of Party leadership over the military, and espy that Party strategy on strengthening military capabilities for the novel era guides travail to build national defense and the armed forces. They must continue to enhance the political loyalty of the armed forces, strengthen them through reform and technology, and elope them in accordance with law. They must region greater focus on combat, cheer innovation, build systems, increase efficacy and efficiency, and further military-civilian integration.

    12. Upholding the principle of "one country, two systems" and promoting national reunification

    Maintaining lasting prosperity and stability in Hong Kong and Macao and achieving China's plenary reunification are essential to realizing national rejuvenation. They must ensure both the central government's overall jurisdiction over the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions and a tall degree of autonomy in the two regions. They should ensure that the principle of "one country, two systems" remains unchanged, is unwaveringly upheld, and in exercise is not bent or distorted. They must uphold the one-China principle and the 1992 Consensus, promote the peaceful development of cross-Straits relations, deepen economic cooperation and cultural exchange between the two sides of the Straits, and cheer fellow Chinese on both sides to contest complete separatist activities and travail together to realize Chinese national rejuvenation.

    13. Promoting the pile of a community with a shared future for mankind

    The dream of the Chinese people is closely connected with the dreams of the peoples of other countries; the Chinese Dream can breathe realized only in a peaceful international environment and under a stable international order. They must preserve in intuition both their internal and international imperatives, sojourn on the path of peaceful development, and continue to pursue a mutually advantageous strategy of opening up. They will uphold justice while pursuing shared interests, and will foster novel thinking on common, comprehensive, cooperative, and sustainable security. They will pursue open, innovative, and inclusive development that benefits everyone; boost cross-cultural exchanges characterized by harmony within diversity, inclusiveness, and mutual learning; and cultivate ecosystems based on respect for nature and green development. China will continue its efforts to safeguard world peace, contribute to global development, and uphold international order.

    14. Exercising plenary and rigorous governance over the Party

    To absorb the courage to carry out self-reform and conduct strict self-governance: this is the most distinctive piece of their Party's character. They must uphold the Party Constitution as their fundamental rules, give top priority to the political travail of the Party, combine efforts on ideological travail and institution building, and strengthen Party competence in complete respects. They must focus on oversight over the "key few," by which they involve leading officials, and espy that the principle of Three Stricts and Three Earnests are observed.

    We must uphold democratic centralism, ensure that intraparty political activities are carried out in earnest, impose strict Party discipline, and strengthen internal oversight. They must develop a positive and healthy political culture in the Party and better the Party's political ecosystem, resolutely amend misconduct in complete its forms, and prove zero tolerance for corruption. They will continue to strengthen the Party's capacity to purify, improve, and reform itself, and forever maintain its close ties with the people.

    The above 14 points configuration the basic policy that underpins their endeavors to uphold and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics in the novel era. complete their members must fully implement the Party's basic theory, line, and policy so as to better steer the development of the Party and people's cause.

    Just as there are no bounds to practice, there is no terminate to abstract exploration. The world is changing with every second, every moment; and China, too, is changing with every second, every moment. They must ensure their theory evolves with the times, deepen their appreciation of objective laws, and promote their theoretical, practical, institutional, cultural, and other explorations.

    Comrades,

    The era is the mother of thought; exercise is the fount of theory. If they respond to the muster of their times and absorb the courage to uphold truth and amend errors, the Marxism of 21st century China will, without a doubt, emanate more mighty, more compelling power of truth.

    IV. Securing a conclusive conquest in pile a Moderately Prosperous Society in complete Respects and Embarking on a Journey to Fully Build a Modern Socialist China

    After adopting the policy of reform and opening up, their Party laid out three strategic goals for achieving socialist modernization in China. The first two—ensuring that people's basic needs are met and that their lives are generally decent—have been accomplished ahead of time. pile on this, their Party then developed the vision that by the time they celebrate their centenary, they will absorb developed their society into a moderately prosperous one with a stronger economy, greater democracy, more advanced science and education, thriving culture, greater companionable harmony, and a better character of life. After this, with another 30 years of work, and by the time they celebrate the centenary of the People's Republic of China, they will absorb basically achieved modernization and turned China into a modern socialist country.

    The era between now and 2020 will breathe conclusive in finishing the pile of a moderately prosperous society in complete respects. They must ensue the requirements on pile this society set out at their 16th, 17th, and 18th National Congresses, act in response to the evolution of the principal contradiction in Chinese society, and promote coordinated economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological advancement. They must prove firm resolve in implementing the strategy for invigorating China through science and education, the strategy on developing a character workforce, the innovation-driven development strategy, the bucolic vitalization strategy, the coordinated regional development strategy, the sustainable development strategy, and the military-civilian integration strategy. They must focus on priorities, address inadequacies, and shore up points of weakness. In this regard, I want to stress that they must win tough steps to forestall and defuse major risks, carry out targeted poverty alleviation, and obviate and control pollution, so that the moderately prosperous society they build earns the people's approval and stands the test of time.

    The era between the 19th and the 20th National Congress is the era in which the timeframes of the two centenary goals converge. In this period, not only must they finish pile a moderately prosperous society in complete respects and achieve the first centenary goal; they must also build on this achievement to embark on a novel journey toward the second centenary goal of fully pile a modern socialist country.

    Based on a comprehensive analysis of the international and domestic environments and the conditions for China's development, they absorb drawn up a two-stage development objective for the era from 2020 to the middle of this century.

    In the first stage from 2020 to 2035, they will build on the foundation created by the moderately prosperous society with a further 15 years of difficult travail to espy that socialist modernization is basically realized. The vision is that by the terminate of this stage, the following goals will absorb been met:

     * China's economic and technological might has increased significantly. China has become a global leader in innovation.

     * The rights of the people to participate and to develop as equals are adequately protected. The rule of law for the country, the government, and society is basically in place. Institutions in complete fields are further improved; the modernization of China's system and capacity for governance is basically achieved.

     * companionable decomrum and civility are significantly enhanced. China's cultural soft power has grown much stronger; Chinese culture has greater appeal.

     * People are leading more cozy lives, and the size of the middle-income group has grown considerably. Disparities in urban-rural development, in development between regions, and in animate standards are significantly reduced; equitable access to basic public services is basically ensured; and solid progress has been made toward prosperity for everyone.

     * A modern companionable governance system has basically taken shape, and society is plenary of vitality, harmonious, and orderly.

     * There is a fundamental improvement in the environment; the goal of pile a radiant China is basically attained.

    In the second stage from 2035 to the middle of the 21st century, they will, pile on having basically achieved modernization, travail difficult for a further 15 years and develop China into a Great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful. By the terminate of this stage, the following goals will absorb been met:

     * novel heights are reached in every dimension of material, political, cultural and ethical, social, and ecological advancement.

     * Modernization of China's system and capacity for governance is achieved.

     * China has become a global leader in terms of composite national might and international influence.

     * Common prosperity for everyone is basically achieved.

     * The Chinese people esteem happier, safer, and healthier lives.

    The Chinese nation will become a proud and active member of the community of nations.

    Comrades,

    This is their strategic vision for developing socialism with Chinese characteristics in the novel era: Finish pile a moderately prosperous society in complete respects, dawdle on to basically realizing modernization, and then spin to making China a Great modern socialist country in every dimension. They must travail with resolve and tenacity and strive to write a brilliant chapter on their novel journey to socialist modernization.

    V. Applying a novel Vision of development and Developing a Modernized Economy

    To deliver on the two centenary goals, realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, and steadily better their people's lives, they must continue to pursue development as the Party's top priority in governance; they must unleash and develop productive forces, continue reforms to develop the socialist market economy, and promote sustained and sound economic growth.

    China's economy has been transitioning from a phase of rapid growth to a stage of high-quality development. This is a pivotal stage for transforming their growth model, improving their economic structure, and fostering novel drivers of growth. It is imperative that they develop a modernized economy. This is both an exigent requirement for getting us smoothly through this captious transition and a strategic goal for China's development. They must attach character first and give priority to performance. They should pursue supply-side structural reform as their main task, and travail difficult for better quality, higher efficiency, and more robust drivers of economic growth through reform. They exigency to raise total factor productivity and accelerate the pile of an industrial system that promotes coordinated development of the real economy with technological innovation, modern finance, and human resources. They should endeavor to develop an economy with more efficient market mechanisms, dynamic micro-entities, and sound macro-regulation. This will steadily strengthen the innovation capacity and competitiveness of China's economy.

    1. Furthering supply-side structural reform

    In developing a modernized economy, they must focus on the real economy, give priority to improving the character of the supply system, and enhance their economy's might in terms of quality.

    We will travail faster to build China into a manufacturer of character and develop advanced manufacturing, promote further integration of the internet, gargantuan data, and synthetic intelligence with the real economy, and foster novel growth areas and drivers of growth in medium-high terminate consumption, innovation-driven development, the green and low-carbon economy, the sharing economy, modern supply chains, and human capital services. They will champion traditional industries in upgrading themselves and accelerate development of modern service industries to elevate them to international standards. They will dawdle Chinese industries up to the medium-high terminate of the global value chain, and foster a number of world-class advanced manufacturing clusters.

    We will strengthen infrastructure networks for water conservancy, railways, highways, waterways, aviation, pipelines, power grids, information, and logistics. They will continue efforts to reduce overcapacity, reduce excess inventory, deleverage, lower costs, and strengthen areas of weakness, and travail to achieve a dynamic poise between supply and claim by improving the allocation of available resources and increasing high-quality supply.

    We will inspire and protect entrepreneurship, and cheer more entities to compose innovations and start businesses. They will build an educated, skilled, and innovative workforce, foster respect for model workers, promote character workmanship, and espy that taking pride in labor becomes a companionable norm and seeking excellence is valued as a obliging travail ethic.

    2. Making China a country of innovators

    Innovation is the primary driving obligate behind development; it is the strategic underpinning for pile a modernized economy.

    We should aim for the frontiers of science and technology, strengthen basic research, and compose major breakthroughs in pioneering basic research and groundbreaking and original innovations. They will strengthen basic research in applied sciences, launch major national science and technology projects, and prioritize innovation in key generic technologies, cutting-edge frontier technologies, modern engineering technologies, and disruptive technologies. These efforts will provide powerful champion for pile China's might in science and technology, product quality, aerospace, cyberspace, and transportation; and for pile a digital China and a smart society.

    We will better their national innovation system and boost their strategic scientific and technological strength. They will further reform the management system for science and technology, and develop a market-oriented system for technological innovation in which enterprises are the main players and synergy is created through the joint efforts of enterprises, universities, and research institutes. They will champion innovation by miniature and medium-sized enterprises and cheer the application of advances in science and technology.

    We will foster a culture of innovation, and strengthen the creation, protection, and application of intellectual property. They should cultivate a big number of world-class scientists and technologists in strategically Important fields, scientific and technological leaders, and young scientists and engineers, as well as high-performing innovation teams.

    3. Pursuing a bucolic vitalization strategy

    Issues relating to agriculture, bucolic areas, and bucolic people are fundamental to China as they directly concern their country's stability and their people's wellbeing. Addressing these issues should absorb a central region on the travail agenda of the Party, and they must prioritize the development of agriculture and bucolic areas. To build bucolic areas with thriving businesses, pleasant animate environments, companionable decomrum and civility, efficient governance, and prosperity, they exigency to attach in region sound systems, mechanisms, and policies for promoting integrated urban-rural development, and precipitate up the modernization of agriculture and bucolic areas.

    We will consolidate and better the basic bucolic operation system, promote reform of the bucolic land system, and better the system for separating the ownership rights, constrict rights, and management rights for contracted bucolic land. bucolic land contracting practices will remain stable and unchanged on a long-term basis; the current round of contracts will breathe extended for another 30 years upon expiration. They will press ahead with reform of the bucolic collective property rights system, safeguard the property rights and interests of bucolic people, and strengthen the collective economy.

    We must ensure China's food security so that they always absorb control over their own food supply. They will establish industrial, production, and commerce operation systems for modern agriculture, and better the systems for supporting and protecting agriculture. They will develop appropriately scaled agricultural operations of various forms, cultivate novel types of agribusiness, better specialized agricultural services, and cheer miniature household farmers to become involved in modern agriculture.

    We will promote the integrated development of the primary, secondary, and tertiary industries in bucolic areas, champion and cheer employment and commerce startups there, and open up more channels to increase bucolic incomes. They will strengthen basic services in bucolic communities, and better the bucolic governance model which combines self-governance, rule of law, and rule of virtue. They will train professional bucolic service personnel who absorb a obliging information of agriculture, infatuation their bucolic areas, and reliance about bucolic people.

    4. Implementing the coordinated regional development strategy

    We will dedicate more energy to speeding up the development of former revolutionary base areas, areas with big ethnic minority populations, brim areas, and destitute areas. They will strengthen measures to compass a novel stage in the large-scale development of the western region; deepen reform to accelerate the revitalization of former industrial bases in the northeast and other parts of the country; alleviate the central region rise by tapping into local strengths; and champion the eastern region in taking the lead in pursuing optimal development through innovation. To this end, they exigency to attach in region new, efficient mechanisms to ensure coordinated development of different regions.

    We will create networks of cities and towns based on city clusters, enabling the coordinated development of cities of different sizes and miniature towns, and precipitate up travail on granting permanent urban residency to people who dawdle from bucolic to urban areas. They will alleviate Beijing of functions nonessential to its role as the capital and exhaust this application to drive the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region; and they will develop forward-looking plans and adopt tall standards for pile the Xiongan novel Area. They will facilitate the development of the Yangtze Economic Belt by promoting well-coordinated environmental conservation and avoiding immoderate development. champion will breathe given to resource-depleted areas in their economic transformation. They will accelerate development in the brim areas, and ensure their stability and security. They will pursue coordinated land and marine development, and step up efforts to build China into a sturdy maritime country.

    5. Accelerating efforts to better the socialist market economy

    In their economic reforms, they must concentrate on improving the property rights system and ensuring the market-based allocation of factors of production, so that property rights act as efficient incentives. They should ensure free flows of factors, resilient prices, honest and systematic competition, and that commerce survival is determined by competition.

    We will better the systems for managing different types of state assets, and reform the system of authorized operation of state capital. In the state-owned sector, they will step up improved distribution, structural adjustment, and strategic reorganization. They will travail to espy that state assets maintain and increase their value; they will champion state capital in becoming stronger, doing better, and growing bigger, and win efficient measures to obviate the loss of state assets. They will further reform of state-owned enterprises, develop mixed-ownership economic entities, and spin Chinese enterprises into world-class, globally competitive firms. They will interpolate a negative list for market access nationwide, sort through and carry out away with regulations and practices that impede the development of a unified market and honest competition, champion the growth of private businesses, and stimulate the vitality of various market entities.

    We will deepen reforms in the commerce sector, fracture administrative monopolies, preclude the forming of market monopolies, precipitate up the reform of market-based pricing of factors of production, relax control over market access in the service sector, and better market oversight mechanisms. They will develop novel methods to better macro-regulation, give plenary play to the strategic guidance of national development plans, and better mechanisms for coordinating fiscal, monetary, industrial, regional, and other economic policies.

    We will better systems and mechanisms for stimulating consumer spending, and leverage the fundamental role of consumption in promoting economic growth. They will deepen reform of the investment and financing systems, and enable investment to play a crucial role in improving the supply structure.

    We will expedite the creation of a modern public finance system, and establish a fiscal relationship between the central and local governments built upon clearly defined powers and responsibilities, preempt monetary resource allocation, and greater poise between regions.

    We will attach in region a comprehensive, procedure-based, transparent budget system that uses well-conceived standards and imposes efficient constraints; and they will implement performance-based management nationwide.

    We will deepen reform of the taxation system, and better the local tax system. They will deepen institutional reform in the monetary sector, compose it better serve the real economy, increase the symmetry of direct financing, and promote the healthy development of a multilevel capital market.

    We will better the framework of regulation underpinned by monetary policy and macro-prudential policy, and espy that interest rates and exchange rates become more market-based. They will better the monetary regulatory system to forestall systemic monetary risks.

    6. Making novel ground in pursuing opening up on complete fronts

    Openness brings progress, while self-seclusion leaves one behind. China will not close its door to the world; they will only become more and more open.

    We should pursue the Belt and Road Initiative as a priority, give equal accent to "bringing in" and "going global," ensue the principle of achieving shared growth through discussion and collaboration, and increase openness and cooperation in pile innovation capacity. With these efforts, they hope to compose novel ground in opening China further through links running eastward and westward, across land and over sea.

    We will expand foreign trade, develop novel models and novel forms of trade, and spin China into a trader of quality. They will adopt policies to promote high-standard liberalization and facilitation of trade and investment; they will implement the system of pre-establishment national treatment plus a negative list across the board, significantly ease market access, further open the service sector, and protect the legitimate rights and interests of foreign investors. complete businesses registered in China will breathe treated equally.

    We will better the poise in opening their different regions, and open the western region wider. They will concede more powers to pilot free trade zones to conduct reform, and explore the opening of free trade ports. They will develop novel ways of making outbound investments, promote international cooperation on production capacity, configuration globally-oriented networks of trade, investment and financing, production, and services, and build up their strengths for international economic cooperation and competition.

    Comrades,

    Unlocking and developing the productive forces is a fundamental assignment of socialism. They must inspire creativity and vitality throughout society, and strive to achieve better quality, more efficient, fairer, and more sustainable development.

    VI. Improving the System of Institutions through Which the People elope the Country and Developing Socialist Democracy

    China is a socialist country of people's democratic dictatorship under the leadership of the working class based on an alliance of workers and farmers; it is a country where complete power of the state belongs to the people. China's socialist democracy is the broadest, most genuine, and most efficient democracy to safeguard the fundamental interests of the people. The very purpose of developing socialist democracy is to give plenary expression to the will of the people, protect their rights and interests, spark their creativity, and provide systemic and institutional guarantees to ensure the people elope the country.

    The path of socialist political advancement with Chinese characteristics is the analytic outcome of the evolution of history, theory, and exercise as the Chinese people absorb long engaged in struggles since the advent of modern times. It is a requisite for maintaining the very nature of the Party and fulfilling its fundamental purpose.

    No two political systems are entirely the same, and a political system cannot breathe judged in abstraction without respect for its companionable and political context, its history, and its cultural traditions. No one political system should breathe regarded as the only choice; and they should not just mechanically copy the political systems of other countries.

    We must uphold long term and steadily strengthen China's socialist democracy, compose active and prudent efforts to promote the reform of the political system, and better the institutions, standards, and procedures of socialist democracy. They should ensure that people participate, in accordance with law and in various ways and forms, in the management of state, economic, cultural, and companionable affairs, and consolidate and enhance political stability, unity, and vitality.

    1. Upholding the solidarity of Party leadership, the running of the country by the people, and law-based governance

    Party leadership is the fundamental guarantee for ensuring that the people elope the country and governance in China is law-based; that the people elope the country is an essential feature of socialist democracy; and law-based governance is the basic passage for the Party to lead the people in governing the country. These three elements are integral components of socialist democracy.

    In China's political life, their Party exercises leadership. Strengthening the centralized, unified leadership of the Party on the one hand and, on the other, supporting the people's congresses, governments, committees of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), courts, and procuratorates in performing their functions and playing their roles in accordance with the law and their charters, configuration a unified pair.

    We will better the passage the Party exercises leadership and governance to ensure that it leads the people in effectively governing the country. They will expand the people's systematic political participation to espy that in accordance with law they engage in democratic elections, consultations, decision-making, management, and oversight. They should uphold the unity, sanctity, and authority of China's legal system, and strengthen legal protection for human rights to ensure that the people esteem extensive rights and freedoms as prescribed by law. They should both consolidate government and better the institutions of democracy at the primary flush to ensure the people's rights to breathe informed, to participate, to breathe heard, and to oversee.

    We will better mechanisms for law-based decision-making, and attach in region mechanisms for the exercise of power that ensure sound decision-making, resolute execution, and efficient oversight. Officials at complete levels must deepen their understanding of democracy, breathe democratic in their conduct, willingly accept public oversight, and perform as they should in their role as public servants.

    2. Strengthening institutional guarantees to ensure the people elope the country

    We must uphold long term and steadily better the system of people's congresses, a political system fundamental to the Party's leadership, the running of the country by the people, and law-based governance. They should champion and ensure the people's exercise of state power through people's congresses.

    We should espy to it that people's congresses and their standing committees play the leading role in lawmaking, and better the organizational and working systems of people's congresses to champion and ensure the exercise of their statutory powers of enacting laws, conducting oversight, making decisions, and appointing and removing officials. They should give better play to the role of deputies to people's congresses, and enable people's congresses at complete levels and their standing committees to fully perform their functions as stipulated in the Constitution and the law, and to truly portray the people and maintain close ties with them. They should better the setup of special committees of people's congresses and the composition of their standing committees and special committees.

    3. Giving play to the Important role of socialist consultative democracy

    The essence of the people's democracy is that the people regain to dispute their own affairs. Consultative democracy is an Important passage of effecting Party leadership and a model and might unique to China's socialist democracy. They will promote extensive, multilevel, and institutionalized development of consultative democracy, and adopt a coordinated approach to promoting consultations carried out by political parties, people's congresses, government departments, CPPCC committees, people's organizations, communities, and companionable organizations. They will strengthen the institutions of consultative democracy and develop complete procedures and practices to enable the people's broad, continuous, and intensive participation in day-to-day political activities.

    The CPPCC, as a distinctively Chinese political institution, is a major channel for socialist consultative democracy, and its committees are specialist consultative bodies. The CPPCC committees should focus on the Party and the country's key tasks. With the themes of solidarity and democracy in mind, they should exercise consultative democracy throughout the gross process of political consultation, democratic oversight, and participation in the deliberation and administration of state affairs; and they should better the content and forms of consultation and deliberation to build consensus and promote unity. They should strengthen democratic oversight, focusing on the implementation of the major principles, policies, decisions, and plans of the Party and the state. They should better portray the different companionable sectors and strengthen the competence of their members.

    4. Advancing law-based governance

    Advancing law-based governance in complete fields is a profound revolution in China's governance. They must promote the rule of law and travail to ensure sound lawmaking, strict law enforcement, impartial administration of justice, and the observance of law by everyone. A central leading group for advancing law-based governance in complete areas will breathe set up to exercise unified leadership over the initiative to build rule of law in China. They will strengthen oversight to ensure compliance with the Constitution, promote constitutionality review, and safeguard the authority of the Constitution. They will carry out lawmaking in a well-conceived and democratic passage and in accordance with law, so that obliging laws are made to promote development and ensure obliging governance. They will build a rule of law government, promote law-based government administration, and espy that law is enforced in a strict, procedure-based, impartial, and non-abusive way. They will carry out comprehensive and integrated reform of the judicial system and invoke judicial accountability in complete respects, so that the people can espy in every judicial case that justice is served.

    We will redouble efforts to raise public awareness of the law, develop a socialist culture of rule of law, and increase public awareness of the principle underlying rule of law that the Constitution and the law are above everything else and that everyone is equal before the law. Every Party organization and every Party member must win the lead in respecting, learning about, observing, and applying the law. No organization or individual has the power to overstep the Constitution or the law; and no one is allowed in any passage to override the law with his or her own orders, region his or her authority above the law, violate the law for personal gain, or maltreat the law.

    5. Deepening reform of Party and government institutions and the system of government administration

    We will adopt a comprehensive approach to the setup of Party and government institutions, and ensure that powers are designated properly and functions and duties are defined clearly both for the institutions themselves and their internal bodies. They will exhaust various types of staffing resources in a coordinated way, develop a sound system of administration, and better the organic law for state institutions. The government needs to transform its functions, further streamline administration and delegate powers, develop novel ways of regulation and supervision, and strengthen its credibility and administrative capacity, pile itself into a service-oriented government able to answer the needs of the people.

    More conclusion making power should breathe given to governments at and below the provincial level, and ways should breathe explored to merge Party and government bodies with similar functions at the provincial, prefectural, and county levels or for them to travail together as one office while keeping sever identities. They will deepen the reform of public institutions to espy that they focus on serving public interests, alleviate them of government functions, preserve them away from commerce activities, and let them elope their own day-to-day operations while maintaining supervision over them.

    6. Consolidating and developing the patriotic united front

    The united front is an Important passage to ensure the success of the Party's cause, and they must maintain commitment to it long term. They must uphold the banner of patriotism and socialism, strive to achieve Great solidarity and solidarity, poise commonality and diversity, and expand common ground and the convergence of interests. In handling its relationships with other Chinese political parties, the Communist Party of China is guided by the principles of long-term coexistence, mutual oversight, sincerity, and sharing the rough times and the smooth, and it supports these parties in performing their duties in accordance with the requirements of the Chinese socialist system for their participation in governance.

    We will fully implement the Party's policies concerning ethnic groups, heighten public awareness of ethnic solidarity and progress, and create a sturdy sense of community for the Chinese nation. They will cheer more exchanges and interactions among different ethnic groups, helping them remain closely united dote the seeds of a pomegranate that stick together, and travail jointly for common prosperity and development.

    We will fully implement the Party's basic policy on pious affairs, uphold the principle that religions in China must breathe Chinese in orientation and provide active guidance to religions so that they can adapt themselves to socialist society. They will cheer intellectuals who are not Party members and people belonging to novel companionable groups to play the Important roles they absorb in pile socialism with Chinese characteristics. They should configuration a novel nature of cordial and spotless relationship between government and business, promote healthy growth of the non-public sector of the economy, and cheer those working in this sector to achieve success. They will maintain extensive contacts with overseas Chinese nationals, returned Chinese and their relatives and unite them so that they can join their endeavors to revitalize the Chinese nation. Comrades,

    The political system of socialism with Chinese characteristics is a Great creation of the Communist Party of China and the Chinese people. They absorb every confidence that they can give plenary play to the strengths and distinctive features of China's socialist democracy, and compose China's contribution to the political advancement of mankind.

    VII. pile Stronger Cultural confidence and Helping Socialist Culture to Flourish

    Culture is a country and nation's soul. Their country will thrive only if their culture thrives, and their nation will breathe sturdy only if their culture is strong. Without plenary confidence in their culture, without a rich and prosperous culture, the Chinese nation will not breathe able to rejuvenate itself. They must develop a socialist culture with Chinese characteristics, inspire the cultural creativity of their gross nation, and develop a Great socialist culture in China.

    Socialist culture with Chinese characteristics is derived from China's fine traditional culture, which was born of the Chinese civilization and nurtured over more than 5,000 years; it has grown out of the revolutionary and advanced socialist culture that developed over the course of the Chinese people's revolution, construction, and reform under the Party's leadership; and it is rooted in the Great exercise of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

    To develop socialist culture with Chinese characteristics means to develop a socialist culture for their nation—a culture that is sound and people-oriented, that embraces modernization, the world, and the future, and that both promotes socialist material wellbeing and raises socialist cultural-ethical standards. In developing this culture, they must ensue the guidance of Marxism, base their efforts on Chinese culture, and win into account the realities of synchronous China and the conditions of the present era. They should ensure that this culture serves the people and serves socialism. They should ensue the principle of letting a hundred flowers efflorescence and a hundred schools of thought contend, and cheer creative transformation and development, so as to add novel luster to Chinese culture.

    1. Holding firmly the leading position in ideological work

    Ideology determines the direction a culture should win and the path it should ensue as it develops. They must continue to adapt Marxism to China's conditions, preserve it up-to-date, and enhance its accepted appeal. They will develop socialist ideology that has the capacity to unite and the power to inspire the people to embrace shared ideals, convictions, values, and virtuous standards. They will better arm ourselves with theory and increase the public appeal of the Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a novel Era. They will travail harder to study and develop Marxist theory, travail faster to develop philosophy and companionable sciences with Chinese characteristics, and develop novel types of arbitrator tanks with distinctive Chinese features.

    We will maintain the birthright tone in public communication, give priority to improving means of communication and to creating novel ones, and strengthen the penetration, guidance, influence, and credibility of the media. They will provide more and better online content and attach in region a system for integrated internet management to ensure a spotless cyberspace. They will implement the system of responsibility for ideological work, and further consolidate their positions and better management in this field. They will distinguish between matters of political principle, issues of understanding and thinking, and academic viewpoints, but they must contest and resist various erroneous views with a lucid stand.

    2. Cultivating and observing core socialist values

    Core socialist values portray the synchronous Chinese spirit and are a crystallization of the values shared by complete Chinese people.

    We will focus on fostering a novel generation capable of shouldering the mission of national rejuvenation; they will offer them better guidance, expose them to practice, and provide institutional guarantees. They will draw on core socialist values to steer education, efforts to raise cultural-ethical standards, and the creation, production, and distribution of cultural and intellectual products, and espy that complete areas of companionable development are imbued with these values and that they become piece of people's thinking and behavior. To this end, they will cheer extensive public involvement, making their officials win the lead and starting with families and children.

    We will draw on China's fine traditional culture, preserve alive and develop its vision, concepts, values, and virtuous norms, and carry out so in a passage that responds to the muster of their era. With this they will espy that Chinese culture maintains its appeal and evolves with the times.

    3. Raising intellectual and virtuous standards

    When the people absorb ideals, their country will absorb strength, and their nation will absorb a lustrous future. They will alleviate their people raise their political awareness and virtuous standards, foster appreciation of fine culture, and enhance companionable decomrum and civility.

    We will undertake extensive public awareness activities to alleviate the people develop firm ideals and convictions, build their awareness of socialism with Chinese characteristics and the Chinese Dream, foster a Chinese ethos and a readiness to respond to the muster of their times, strengthen the guiding role of patriotism, collectivism, and socialism, and espy that the people develop an accurate understanding of history, ethnicity, country, and culture. They will launch a civic morality shove to raise public ethical standards, and enhance travail ethics, family virtues, and personal integrity. They will cheer their people to strive for excellence and to develop stronger virtues, respect the elderly, infatuation families, and breathe loyal to the country and the people.

    We will better and strengthen their ideological and political work, and launch initiatives to raise the public's cultural-ethical standards. They will promote the spirit of science and compose scientific information widely attainable; they will travail to espy the back of outdated companionable mores and to promote obliging and up-to-date practices and trends; and they will resist the corrosive influence of backward and decadent culture. They will promote credibility building, institutionalize volunteer services, and heighten people's sense of companionable responsibility, awareness of rules, and sense of dedication.

    4. Seeing socialist literature and expertise thrive

    Socialist literature and expertise are for the people: Writers and artists should win a people-centered approach and draw inspiration from everyday life and the experiences of the people to produce works that carry out justice to their times. They cheer them to create fine works that are thought provoking and of a tall artistic standard, that reflect real life, and that extol their Party, their country, their people, and their heroes.

    We will foster democracy in academic research and artistic pursuit, and cheer originality and experimentation with novel approaches in the creation of literature and art. They cheer the cultivation of fine tastes, style, and a sense of responsibility, and reject vulgarity and kitsch in literary and artistic creation. They will strengthen the professional standards of artists and writers to espy the emergence of a big number of eminent figures who absorb virtuous integrity and outstanding artistic appeal, and creators of inspiring works.

    5. Promoting the development of cultural programs and industries

    To meet the people's novel aspirations for a better life, they must provide them with rich intellectual nourishment. They exigency to deepen structural reform of the cultural sector, better the cultural management system, and accelerate the establishment of systems and mechanisms that attach companionable benefits first while pursuing economic returns. They will better the public cultural service system, carry out public-interest cultural programs, and launch more accepted cultural activities. They will strengthen protection and utilization of cultural relics, and better preserve and carry forward their cultural heritage.

    We will better modern systems for cultural industries and markets, explore novel mechanisms for cultural production and operation, better economic policy on the development of the cultural sector, and develop novel forms of commerce in this sector. They will carry out extensive Fitness-for-All programs, precipitate up efforts to build China into a country sturdy on sports, and compose smooth preparations for the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympic Games and Paralympic Games. They will strengthen people-to-people and cultural exchanges with other countries, giving prominence to Chinese culture while also drawing on other cultures. They will better their capacity for engaging in international communication so as to recount China's stories well, present a true, multi-dimensional, and panoramic view of China, and enhance their country's cultural soft power.

    Comrades,

    Since its founding, the Communist Party of China has actively guided and promoted China's advanced culture while keeping China's fine traditional culture alive and strong. Today, they Chinese Communists and the Chinese people should and can shoulder their novel cultural mission, compose cultural creations through practice, and promote cultural advancement along with the progress of history.

    VIII. Growing Better at Ensuring and Improving People's Wellbeing and Strengthening and Developing novel Approaches to companionable Governance

    Everyone in the Party must preserve firmly in intuition that the nature of a political party and of a government is determined by those whom they serve. To lead the people to a better life is their Party's abiding goal. They must attach the people's interests above complete else, espy that the gains of reform and development capitalize complete their people in a honest way, and strive to achieve shared prosperity for everyone.

    As they travail to ensure and better people's wellbeing, they must focus on the most pressing, most immediate issues that concern the people the most. They will carry out everything in their capacity, and travail away at issue by issue, year in and year out. They will espy that everyone performs their duties and shares in the benefits. They will espy basic needs are met, prioritize key areas, better institutions, and steer public expectations. They will better the public service system, ensure people's basic character of life, and preserve up with people's ever-growing needs for a better life. They will continue to promote companionable fairness and justice, develop efficient companionable governance, and maintain public order. With this they should espy that their people will always absorb a sturdy sense of fulfillment, happiness, and security.

    1. Giving priority to developing education

    Strengthening education is fundamental to their pursuit of national rejuvenation. They must give priority to education, further reform in education, precipitate up its modernization, and develop education that people are satisfied with. They should fully implement the Party's education policy, foster virtue through education, enhance their students' well-rounded development, promote fairness in education, and nurse a novel generation of capable young people who absorb a obliging and all-round moral, intellectual, physical, and aesthetical grounding and are well-prepared to join the socialist cause.

    We will promote the coordinated development of compulsory education in urban and bucolic areas, while giving particular attention to bucolic areas. They will better preschool education, special needs education, and online education, compose senior secondary education universally available, and strive to espy that each and every child has honest access to obliging education.

    We will better the system of vocational education and training, and promote integration between industry and education and cooperation between enterprises and colleges. They will dawdle faster to build Chinese universities into world-class universities and develop world-class disciplines as they travail to bring out the plenary potential of higher education. They will better the system of monetary aid to students, and travail to espy that the vast majority of the novel members of the urban and bucolic labor obligate absorb received senior secondary education, and that more and more of them receive higher education. They will champion the well-regulated development of private schools. They will strengthen the professional ethics and competence of teachers, and cheer public respect for educators and public champion for education. They will better continuing education, step up efforts to build a learning society, and promote the well-rounded development of complete their people.

    2. Improving the character of employment and raising incomes

    Employment is pivotal to people's wellbeing. They must give tall priority to employment and pursue a proactive employment policy, striving to achieve fuller employment and create better character jobs. They will launch vocational skills training programs on a gargantuan scale, give particular attention to tackling structural unemployment, and create more jobs by encouraging commerce startups. They will provide extensive public employment services to open more channels for college graduates and other young people as well as migrant bucolic workers to find jobs and start their own businesses. They must remove institutional barriers that obstruct the companionable mobility of labor and talent and ensure that every one of their people has the desultory to pursue career through difficult work. They will better mechanisms for joint discussion and mediation involving government, trade unions, and employers in an application to ensure harmonious labor relations.

    We will continue to ensue the principle of distribution according to one's travail while improving their institutions and mechanisms for distribution based on factors of production, so as to compose income distribution fairer and more orderly. They will cheer people to compose their money through difficult travail and legal means. They will expand the size of the middle-income group, increase income for people on low incomes, adjust immoderate incomes, and prohibit illicit income. They will travail to espy that individual incomes grow in step with economic development, and pay rises in tandem with increases in labor productivity. They will expand the channels for people to compose work-based earnings and property income. They will espy that government plays its duty of adjusting redistribution, dawdle faster to ensure equitable access to basic public services and narrow the gaps in incomes.

    3. Strengthening the companionable security system

    We will act on the policy requirements to alleviate those most in need, to build a tightly woven safety net, and to build the necessary institutions, as they travail to develop a sustainable multi-tiered companionable security system that covers the entire population in both urban and bucolic areas, with clearly defined rights and responsibilities, and champion that hits the birthright level. They will travail to espy that everyone has access to companionable security. They will better the basic pension schemes for urban employees and for bucolic and non-working urban residents, and quickly bring pension schemes under national unified management.

    We will better the unified systems of basic medical insurance and grave disease insurance for bucolic and non-working urban residents, and better unemployment insurance and work-related injury insurance. They will establish a unified national platform for companionable security public services. They will promote the coordinated development of the companionable assistance systems for urban and bucolic residents, and better the subsistence allowances system.

    We must adhere to the fundamental national policy of gender equality, and protect the legitimate rights and interests of women and minors. They will better their systems for companionable assistance, companionable welfare, charity, and entitled groups' benefits and services. They will better the system for supporting and caring for children, women, and venerable people left behind in bucolic areas. They will develop programs for people with disabilities and travail to provide better rehabilitation services for them.

    We must not forget that housing is for animate in, not for speculation. With this in mind, they will dawdle faster to attach in region a housing system that ensures supply through multiple sources, provides housing champion through multiple channels, and encourages both housing purchase and renting. This will compose us better placed to meet the housing needs of complete of their people.

    4. Winning the battle against poverty

    Seeing that destitute people and destitute areas will enter the moderately prosperous society together with the comfort of the country is a solemn promise made by their Party. They should mobilize the energies of their gross Party, their gross country, and their gross society, and continue to implement targeted poverty reduction and alleviation measures. They will operate on the basis of a working mechanism whereby the central government makes overall plans, provincial-level governments win overall responsibility, and city and county governments ensure implementation; and they will strengthen the system for making heads of Party committees and governments at each flush assume the overall responsibility for poverty alleviation.

    We will continue to promote poverty reduction drawing on the joint efforts of government, society, and the market. They will pay particular attention to helping people increase confidence in their own capacity to heave themselves out of poverty and espy that they can access the education they exigency to carry out so. They will strengthen collaboration on poverty alleviation between the eastern and western regions; and they will provide focused assistance to areas of extreme poverty. They must ensure that by the year 2020, complete bucolic residents animate below the current poverty line absorb been lifted out of poverty, and poverty is eliminated in complete destitute counties and regions. Poverty alleviation should compass those who truly exigency it and deliver genuine outcomes.

    5. Carrying out the healthy China initiative

    A healthy population is a key notice of a prosperous nation and a sturdy country. They will better the national health policy, and ensure the delivery of comprehensive lifecycle health services for their people. They will deepen reform of the medicine and healthcare system, establish distinctively Chinese systems for providing basic healthcare, medical insurance, and character and efficient healthcare services, and develop a sound modern hospital management system.

    We will better community-level healthcare services, and strengthen the ranks of common practitioners. They will attach an terminate to the practices of hospitals funding their operations with profits from overpriced drugs, and better the system for medicine supply.

    We will, with accent on prevention, carry out extensive patriotic health campaigns, promote healthy and positive lifestyles, and obviate and control major diseases. They will initiate a food safety strategy to ensure that people absorb peace of intuition about what they're putting on their plates. They will champion both traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine, and ensure the preservation and development of traditional Chinese medicine. They will champion the development of private hospitals and health-related industries.

    We will travail to ensure that their childbirth policy meshes with related economic and companionable policies, and carry out research on the population development strategy. As they respond proactively to population aging, they will adopt policies and foster a companionable environment in which senior citizens are respected, cared for, and live happily in their later years. They will provide integrated venerable reliance and medical services, and accelerate the development of old-age programs and industries.

    6. Establishing a companionable governance model based on collaboration, participation, and common interests

    We will step up institution pile in companionable governance and better the law-based companionable governance model under which Party committees exercise leadership, government assumes responsibility, non-governmental actors provide assistance, and the public regain involved. They will strengthen public participation and rule of law in companionable governance, and compose such governance smarter and more specialized.

    We will better mechanisms for preventing and defusing companionable tensions, and properly handle problems among the people. They will promote safe development, and raise public awareness that life matters most and that safety comes first; they will better the public safety system and the responsibility system for workplace safety; they will win resolute measures to obviate grave and major accidents, and build up their capacity for disaster prevention, mitigation, and relief.

    We will accelerate development of the crime prevention and control system, combat and castigate in accordance with law complete illegal and criminal activities such as pornography, gambling, drug abuse, gang violence, kidnapping, and fraud, and protect people's personal rights, property rights, and birthright to dignity. They will better the system of public psychological services, and cultivate self-esteem, self-confidence, rationality, composure, and optimism among their people. They will strengthen the system for community governance, shift the focus of companionable governance to the community level, leverage the role of companionable organizations, and espy that government's governance efforts on the one hand and society's self- regulation and residents' self-governance on the other reinforce each other.

    7. Effectively safeguarding national security

    National security is the cornerstone of peace and stability of their country, and safeguarding it is in the fundamental interests of the Chinese people of complete ethnic groups. They will better their national security strategy and policy, guarantee China's political security, and win coordinated steps to ensure security in complete areas. They will better their national security system, strengthen rule of law measures to enhance national security, and enhance their capacity for forestalling and fending off security risks. They must rigorously protect against and win resolute measures to combat complete acts of infiltration, subversion, and sabotage, as well as violent and terrorist activities, ethnic separatist activities, and pious extremist activities. They will strengthen efforts to raise awareness of national security among complete Party members and complete the people, and create a sturdy synergy of the gross society to safeguard national security.

    Comrades,

    Meeting the fundamental interests of complete their people is the ultimate yardstick for judging complete the travail of their Party. The issues of concern to the people, breathe they gargantuan or small, should breathe handled with utmost reliance and attention. They must start with addressing issues of public concern, start with delivering the outcomes that answer public needs, and travail without comfort to lead their people in pursuing a better life.

    IX. Speeding up Reform of the System for Developing an Ecological Civilization, and pile a radiant China

    Man and nature configuration a community of life; we, as human beings, must respect nature, ensue its ways, and protect it. Only by observing the laws of nature can mankind avoid costly blunders in its exploitation. Any harm they inflict on nature will eventually return to haunt us. This is a reality they absorb to face.

    The modernization that they pursue is one characterized by harmonious coexistence between man and nature. In addition to creating more material and cultural wealth to meet people's ever-increasing needs for a better life, they exigency also to provide more character ecological goods to meet people's ever-growing demands for a radiant environment. They should, acting on the principles of prioritizing resource conservation and environmental protection and letting nature restore itself, develop spatial layouts, industrial structures, and ways of travail and life that alleviate conserve resources and protect the environment. With this, they can restore the serenity, harmony, and beauty of nature.

    1. Promoting green development

    We will step up efforts to establish a legal and policy framework that promotes green production and consumption, and promote a sound economic structure that facilitates green, low-carbon, and circular development. They will create a market-based system for green technology innovation, develop green finance, and spur the development of energy-saving and environmental protection industries as well as spotless production and spotless energy industries. They will promote a revolution in energy production and consumption, and build an energy sector that is clean, low-carbon, safe, and efficient.

    We will cheer conservation across the board and promote recycling, win action to regain everyone conserving water, reduce consumption of energy and materials, and establish linkages between the circular exhaust of resources and materials in industrial production and in everyday life. They cheer simple, moderate, green, and low-carbon ways of life, and contest extravagance and immoderate consumption. They will launch initiatives to compose Party and government offices carry out better when it comes to conservation, and develop eco-friendly families, schools, communities, and transport services.

    2. Solving prominent environmental problems

    We will regain everyone involved in improving the environment and address environmental issues at the root. They will continue their shove to obviate and control air pollution to compose their skies blue again. They will precipitate up prevention and control of water pollution, and win comprehensive measures to better river basins and offshore areas. They will strengthen the control of soil pollution and the restoration of polluted soil, intensify the prevention and control of agricultural pollution from non-point sources, and win measures to better bucolic animate environments. They will better the treatment of solid dissipate and garbage.

    We will invoke stricter pollutants discharge standards and espy to it that polluters are held accountable. They will better their systems for credibility assessment based on environmental protection performance, for mandatory release of environmental information, and for imposing severe punishment for environmental violations. They will establish an environmental governance system in which government takes the lead, enterprises assume main responsibility, and companionable organizations and the public also participate. They will regain actively involved in global environmental governance and fulfill their commitments on emissions reduction.

    3. Intensifying the protection of ecosystems

    We will carry out major projects to protect and restore key ecosystems, better the system of shields for ecological security, and develop ecological corridors and biodiversity protection networks, so as to strengthen the character and stability of their ecosystems. They will complete travail on drawing redlines for protecting the ecosystems, designating permanent basic cropland, and delineating boundaries for urban development.

    We will promote afforestation, win comprehensive steps to control desertification, stony deserts, and soil erosion, strengthen wetland conservation and restoration, and better obviate and control geological disasters. They will better the system for protecting natural forests, and spin more marginal farmland into forests and grasslands. They will rigorously protect farmland and expand trials in crop rotation and keeping land fallow. They will better systems for regeneration of croplands, grasslands, forests, rivers, and lakes, and set up diversified market-based mechanisms for ecological compensation.

    4. Reforming the environmental regulation system

    We will strengthen overall planning, organization, and leadership for pile an ecological civilization. They will establish regulatory agencies to manage state-owned natural resource assets and monitor natural ecosystems, and better environmental management systems. These agencies will, in a unified way, perform the duties of the owner of public-owned natural resource assets, the duties of regulating the exhaust of complete territorial space and protecting and restoring ecosystems, and the duties of monitoring the discharge of complete pollutants in urban and bucolic areas and conducting administrative law enforcement.

    We will establish systems for developing and protecting territorial space, better supporting policies on functional zones, and develop a nature reserves system composed mainly of national parks. They will win tough steps to desist and castigate complete activities that damage the environment.

    Comrades,

    What they are doing today to build an ecological civilization will capitalize generations to come. They should absorb a sturdy commitment to socialist ecological civilization and travail to develop a novel model of modernization with humans developing in harmony with nature. They must carry out their generation's participate to protect the environment.

    X. Staying Committed to the Chinese Path of pile sturdy Armed Forces and Fully Advancing the Modernization of National Defense and the Military

    We absorb reached a novel historical starting point in strengthening national defense and the armed forces. Confronted with profound changes in their national security environment and responding to the demands of the day for a sturdy country with a sturdy military, they must fully implement the Party's thinking on strengthening the military for the novel era and the military strategy for novel conditions, build a powerful and modernized army, navy, air force, rocket force, and strategic champion force, develop sturdy and efficient joint operations commanding institutions for theater commands, and create a modern combat system with distinctive Chinese characteristics. Their armed forces must breathe up to shouldering the missions and tasks of the novel era entrusted to them by the Party and the people.

    We will adapt to the trend of a novel global military revolution and to national security needs; they will upgrade their military capabilities, and espy that, by the year 2020, mechanization is basically achieved, IT application has approach a long way, and strategic capabilities absorb seen a gargantuan improvement. In step with their country's modernization process, they will modernize their military across the board in terms of theory, organizational structure, service personnel, and weaponry. They will compose it their mission to espy that by 2035, the modernization of their national defense and their forces is basically completed; and that by the mid-21st century their people's armed forces absorb been fully transformed into world-class forces.

    We will strengthen Party pile in the military. They will launch activities under the theme of "passing on the traditions of revolution; stepping up to the assignment of making the military strong." They will dawdle forward with the development of the military honors system. They will train the revolutionary officers and soldiers of a novel era with faith, ability, courage, and integrity, and espy that their forces forever preserve their nature, purpose, and character as the forces of the people.

    We will continue to deepen national defense and military reform. They will further the reform of major policy systems, including the career officers system, the system for posting civilian personnel in the military, and the military service system. They will shove ahead with transformation of military management, and better and develop their distinctively Chinese socialist military institutions. They must preserve it firm in their minds that technology is the core combat capability, cheer innovations in major technologies, and conduct innovations independently. They will strengthen the system for training military personnel, and compose their people's forces more innovative. They will govern the military with strict discipline in every respect, shove for a fundamental transformation in the passage their military is run, and strengthen the role of rule of law in enhancing national defense and military capabilities.

    A military is built to fight. Their military must respect combat capability as the criterion to meet in complete its travail and focus on how to win when it is called on. They will win solid steps to ensure military preparedness for complete strategic directions, and compose progress in combat readiness in both traditional and novel security fields. They will develop novel combat forces and champion forces, conduct military training under combat conditions, strengthen the application of military strength, precipitate up development of quick-witted military, and better combat capabilities for joint operations based on the network information system and the capacity to fight under multi-dimensional conditions. This will enable us to effectively shape their military posture, manage crises, and deter and win wars.

    We should ensure that efforts to compose their country prosperous and efforts to compose their military sturdy fade hand in hand. They will strengthen unified leadership, top-level design, reform, and innovation. They will precipitate up implementation of major projects, deepen reform of defense-related science, technology, and industry, achieve greater military-civilian integration, and build integrated national strategies and strategic capabilities. They will better their national defense mobilization system, and build a strong, well-structured, and modern brim defense, coastal defense, and air defense. They will establish an administration for veterans; they will protect the legitimate rights and interests of military personnel and their families; and they will compose military service an occupation that enjoys public respect. They will carry out further reforms to build a modernized armed police force.

    Comrades,

    Our military is the people's military, and their national defense is the responsibility of every one of us. They must raise public awareness about the import of national defense and strengthen solidarity between the government and the military and between the people and the military. Let us travail together to create a mighty obligate for realizing the Chinese Dream and the dream of pile a powerful military.

    XI. Upholding "One Country, Two Systems" and poignant toward National Reunification

    Since Hong Kong and Macao's return to the motherland, the exercise of "one country, two systems" in both regions has been a resounding success. The policy of "one country, two systems" has proved to breathe the best solution to the questions of Hong Kong and Macao, left by history, and the best institutional guarantee for the long-term prosperity and stability of Hong Kong and Macao after their return.

    To maintain long-term prosperity and stability in Hong Kong and Macao, it is imperative to fully and faithfully implement the policies of "one country, two systems," "the people of Hong Kong governing Hong Kong," "the people of Macao governing Macao," and a tall degree of autonomy for both regions. It is imperative too, to act in strict compliance with China's Constitution and the basic laws of the two special administrative regions, and to better the systems and mechanisms for enforcing the basic laws.

    We will continue to champion the governments and chief executives of both regions in pursuing the following endeavors: exercising law-based governance, uniting and leading the people of complete sectors in an active and concerted application to promote development and harmony, ensuring and improving people's wellbeing, taking well-ordered steps to promote democracy, maintaining law and order, and fulfilling the constitutional responsibility of safeguarding China's sovereignty, security, and development interests.

    The development of Hong Kong and Macao is closely tied up with that of the mainland. They will continue to champion Hong Kong and Macao in integrating their own development into the overall development of the country. They will give priority to the development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, cooperation between Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao, and regional cooperation in the pan-Pearl River Delta, thus fully advancing mutually advantageous cooperation between the mainland and the two regions. They will formulate and better policies and measures to compose it more convenient for people from Hong Kong and Macao to develop careers on the mainland.

    We will remain committed to the policy for the Hong Kong people to govern Hong Kong and the Macao people to govern Macao, with patriots playing the principal role. They will develop and strengthen the ranks of patriots who infatuation both their country and their regions, and foster greater patriotism and a stronger sense of national identity among the people in Hong Kong and Macao. With this, their compatriots in Hong Kong and Macao will participate both the historic responsibility of national rejuvenation and the pride of a sturdy and prosperous China.

    Resolving the Taiwan question to realize China's complete reunification is the shared aspiration of complete Chinese people, and is in the fundamental interests of the Chinese nation. They must uphold the principles of "peaceful reunification" and"one country, two systems," travail for the peaceful development of cross-Straits relations, and promote the process toward the peaceful reunification of China.

    The one-China principle is the political foundation of cross-Straits relations. The 1992 Consensus embodies the one-China principle and defines the fundamental nature of cross-Straits relations; it thus holds the key to the peaceful development of relations between the two sides of the Taiwan Straits. Recognize the historical fact of the 1992 Consensus and that the two sides both belong to one China, and then their two sides can conduct dialogue to address through discussion the concerns of the people of both sides, and no political party or group in Taiwan will absorb any difficulty conducting exchanges with the mainland.

    Blood is thicker than water. People on both sides of the Taiwan Straits are brothers and sisters; they participate the bond of kinship. Guided by the conviction that they are complete of the very family, they respect the current companionable system and passage of life in Taiwan and are ready to participate the development opportunities on the mainland with their Taiwan compatriots first. They will expand cross-Straits economic and cultural exchanges and cooperation for mutual benefits.

    We will ensure that over time, people from Taiwan will esteem the very treatment as local people when they pursue their studies, start businesses, quest jobs, or live on the mainland, thus improving the wellbeing of Taiwan compatriots. They will cheer people from both sides to travail together to promote Chinese culture and forge closer bonds between them.

    We stand firm in safeguarding China's sovereignty and territorial integrity, and will never allow the historical tragedy of national division to iterate itself. Any separatist activity is inevitable to meet with the resolute opposition of the Chinese people. They absorb the resolve, the confidence, and the capacity to vanquish separatist attempts for "Taiwan independence" in any form. They will never allow anyone, any organization, or any political party, at any time or in any form, to sever any piece of Chinese territory from China!

    Comrades,

    Realizing the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation is a dream shared by complete of us as Chinese. They remain firm in their conviction that, as long as complete the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation, including their compatriots in Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan, ensue the tide of history, travail together for the greater national interests, and preserve their nation's destiny firmly in their own hands, they will, without doubt, breathe able to achieve the Great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

    XII. Following a Path of Peaceful development and Working to Build a Community with a Shared Future for Mankind

    The Communist Party of China strives for both the wellbeing of the Chinese people and human progress. To compose novel and greater contributions for mankind is their Party's abiding mission.

    China will continue to hold tall the banner of peace, development, cooperation, and mutual capitalize and uphold its fundamental foreign policy goal of preserving world peace and promoting common development. China remains firm in its commitment to strengthening friendship and cooperation with other countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence,1 and to forging a novel configuration of international relations featuring mutual respect, fairness, justice, and win-win cooperation.

    The world is undergoing major developments, transformation, and adjustment, but peace and development remain the muster of their day. The trends of global multi-polarity, economic globalization, IT application, and cultural diversity are surging forward; changes in the global governance system and the international order are speeding up; countries are becoming increasingly interconnected and interdependent; relative international forces are becoming more balanced; and peace and development remain irreversible trends.

    And yet, as a world they countenance growing uncertainties and destabilizing factors. Global economic growth lacks energy; the gap between rich and destitute continues to widen; hotspot issues arise often in some regions; and unconventional security threats dote terrorism, cyber-insecurity, major infectious diseases, and climate change continue to spread. As human beings they absorb many common challenges to face.

    Our world is plenary of both hope and challenges. They should not give up on their dreams because the reality around us is too complicated; they should not desist pursuing their ideals because they appear out of their reach. No country can address lonesome the many challenges facing mankind; no country can afford to retreat into self-isolation.

    We muster on the people of complete countries to travail together to build a community with a shared future for mankind, to build an open, inclusive, clean, and radiant world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security, and common prosperity. They should respect each other, dispute issues as equals, resolutely reject the chilly War mentality and power politics, and win a novel approach to developing state-to-state relations with communication, not confrontation, and with partnership, not alliance. They should relegate to settling disputes through dialogue and resolving differences through discussion, coordinate responses to traditional and non-traditional threats, and contest terrorism in complete its forms.

    We should stick together through thick and thin, promote trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, and compose economic globalization more open, inclusive, and balanced so that its benefits are shared by all. They should respect the diversity of civilizations. In handling relations among civilizations, let us supplant estrangement with exchange, clashes with mutual learning, and superiority with coexistence. They should breathe obliging friends to the environment, cooperate to tackle climate change, and protect their planet for the sake of human survival.

    China remains firm in pursuing an independent foreign policy of peace. They respect the birthright of the people of complete countries to select their own development path. They endeavor to uphold international fairness and justice, and contest acts that impose one's will on others or tamper in the internal affairs of others as well as the exercise of the sturdy bullying the weak.

    China will never pursue development at the expense of others' interests, but nor will China ever give up its legitimate rights and interests. No one should expect us to swallow anything that undermines their interests. China pursues a national defense policy that is in nature defensive. China's development does not pose a threat to any other country. No matter what stage of development it reaches, China will never quest hegemony or engage in expansion.

    China has actively developed global partnerships and expanded the convergence of interests with other countries. China will promote coordination and cooperation with other major countries and travail to build a framework for major country relations featuring overall stability and balanced development. China will deepen relations with its neighbors in accordance with the principle of amity, sincerity, mutual benefit, and inclusiveness and the policy of forging friendship and partnership with its neighbors. China will, guided by the principle of upholding justice while pursuing shared interests and the principle of sincerity, real results, affinity, and obliging faith, travail to strengthen solidarity and cooperation with other developing countries. They will strengthen exchanges and cooperation with the political parties and organizations of other countries, and cheer people's congresses, CPPCC committees, the military, local governments, and people's organizations to engage in exchanges with other countries.

    China adheres to the fundamental national policy of opening up and pursues development with its doors open wide. China will actively promote international cooperation through the Belt and Road Initiative. In doing so, they hope to achieve policy, infrastructure, trade, financial, and people-to-people connectivity and thus build a novel platform for international cooperation to create novel drivers of shared development.

    China will increase assistance to other developing countries, especially the least developed countries, and carry out its piece to reduce the North-South development gap. China will champion multilateral trade regimes and travail to facilitate the establishment of free trade areas and build an open world economy.

    China follows the principle of achieving shared growth through discussion and collaboration in engaging in global governance. China stands for democracy in international relations and the equality of complete countries, gargantuan or small, sturdy or weak, rich or poor. China supports the United Nations in playing an active role in international affairs, and supports the efforts of other developing countries to increase their representation and strengthen their voice in international affairs. China will continue to play its piece as a major and liable country, win an active piece in reforming and developing the global governance system, and preserve contributing Chinese wisdom and might to global governance.

    Comrades,

    The future of the world rests in the hands of the people of complete countries; the future of mankind hinges on the choices they make. We, the Chinese, are ready to travail with the people of complete other countries to build a community with a shared future for mankind and create a lustrous tomorrow for complete of us.

    XIII. Exercising Strict Governance over the Party and Improving the Party's capacity to Govern and Lead

    As socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a novel era, their Party must regain a novel contemplate and compose novel accomplishments. As the proverb goes, it takes a obliging blacksmith to compose obliging steel. For the Party to unite the people and lead them in carrying out their Great struggle, advancing their Great cause, and realizing their Great dream, they must unwaveringly uphold and better Party leadership and compose the Party still stronger.

    Ensuring Party self-governance is exercised fully and strictly is a journey to which there's no end. The future of a political party or a government is determined by whether it enjoys public support. They must guard against and amend with resolve the practices the people contest and resent. The gross Party must breathe soberly watchful that the governance environment their Party faces is complex, and that so too are the factors undermining the Party's advanced nature and purity; prominent problems of impurity in thinking, organization, and conduct in the Party absorb not been solved root and branch.

    We must fully recognize the long-term and involved nature of the tests confronting the Party as they relate to governance, reform and opening up, the market economy, and the external environment. They must also fully recognize the intensity and severity of the dangers of a exigency of drive, incompetence, disengagement from the people, inaction, and corruption. So they must focus on solving problems, maintain strategic resolve, and ensure strict Party self-governance.

    The common requirements for Party pile for the novel era are:

     * Uphold and strengthen overall Party leadership and ensure that the Party exercises efficient self-supervision and practices strict self-governance in every respect;

     * win strengthening the Party's long-term governance capacity and its advanced nature and purity as the main thrust; win enhancing the Party's political pile as the overarching principle; win holding dear the Party's ideals, convictions, and purpose as the underpinning; and win harnessing the gross Party's enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity as the focus of efforts;

     * compose all-round efforts to espy the Party's political pile enhanced, its theory strengthened, its organizations consolidated, its conduct improved, and its discipline enforced, with institution pile incorporated into every aspect of Party building;

     * Step up efforts to combat corruption and continue to better the efficacy of Party building;

     * Build the Party into a vibrant Marxist governing party that is always at the forefront of the times, enjoys the wholehearted champion of the people, has the courage to reform itself, and is able to withstand complete tests.

    1. Putting the Party's political pile first

    Taking a lucid political stand is the fundamental requirement their Party must meet as a Marxist party. The Party's political pile is of fundamental import to the Party as it determines the direction and efficacy of Party building.

    The primary assignment of political Party pile is to ensure that the gross Party obeys the Central Committee and upholds its authority and centralized, unified leadership. complete Party members must closely ensue the Party's political line, strictly observe its political discipline and rules, and closely align themselves with the Central Committee in terms of political stance, direction, principle, and path.

    Every member of the Party must hold the Party Constitution in Great reverence, act in strict accordance with the code of conduct for intraparty political life under novel circumstances, and compose intraparty activities more politically oriented, up-to-date, principled, and effective. They must guard against the rules of commerce dealings eroding intraparty conduct, and foster a healthy political atmosphere of integrity within the Party.

    We must better and implement the systems of democratic centralism, and exercise both democracy-based centralism and centralism-guided democracy. This means they should both give plenary play to democracy and exercise centralism on this basis.

    We must foster values dote loyalty, honesty, impartiality, adherence to fact, and integrity; guard against and contest self-centered behavior, decentralism, behavior in disregard of the rules, a silo mentality, unprincipled nice-guyism, and sectarianism, factionalism, and patronage. They must resolutely contest double-dealing and duplicity.

    All Party members, especially high-ranking officials, must strengthen their Party consciousness, political awareness, and political ability. They must respect it as their fundamental political responsibility to breathe loyal to the Party, participate the Party's concerns, fulfill their obligations to the Party, and travail for the people's wellbeing, and forever preserve the political character of Communists.

    2. Arming the gross Party with the Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a novel Era

    Theory is fundamental to Party building. Their revolutionary ideals soar beyond the skies. The noble exemplar of Communism and the shared exemplar of socialism with Chinese characteristics are their source of might and political soul as Chinese Communists; they also configuration the abstract foundation of Party solidarity and unity.

    Our top priority in pile the Party through theory is to sojourn accurate to their ideals and convictions. They should compose complete Party members preserve firmly in intuition the Party's purpose, absorb unwavering convictions as Communists, resolve the fundamental issue of the worldview, outlook on life, and values they should embrace, and maintain abysmal faith in and faithfully exercise Communism and socialism with Chinese characteristics.

    We will foster a Marxist style of learning, and compose it regular exercise and an institutionalized requirement for complete Party members to gain a obliging command of the Party Constitution, Party regulations, and related major policy addresses and to meet Party standards. They will launch a shove on the theme of "staying accurate to their founding mission" to enable complete Party members, especially officials at and above the county and director level, to arm themselves with the Party's novel theories and become more purposeful in working tirelessly to accomplish the Party's historic mission in the novel era.

    3. Training a contingent of competent and professional officials

    Party officials are a central pillar of might for the cause of their Party and country. They must adhere to the principle of the Party supervising officials; select officials on the basis of both integrity and ability, with priority given to integrity, and on the basis of merit regardless of background; and ensure that those who are dedicated, impartial, and upright should breathe appointed. They must implement in earnest the criteria for evaluating obliging officials.

    In selecting and appointing officials, they must adopt the birthright approach, with accent on political performance. They will promote and attach in Important positions those Party officials who carry out well according to the following criteria: they maintain political integrity, arbitrator in terms of the gargantuan picture, ensue the leadership core, and preserve in alignment with the central Party leadership; they absorb plenary confidence in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics; they uphold the authority of the Central Committee and faithfully ensue the Party's theories, lines, principles, and policies; and they are loyal to the Party, absorb virtuous integrity, and demonstrate a keen sense of responsibility. They will strengthen leadership teams at complete levels by appointing competent officials.

    We will win seriously the development of specialized expertise and professionalism, and enhance Party officials' capacity to meet the requirements of developing socialism with Chinese characteristics in the novel era. They will travail harder to identify promising young officials and regain them well prepared for future jobs. They will focus on their practical training in local communities, in travail on the frontline, and in areas where conditions are harsh, and travail to produce a constant stream of outstanding young officials who absorb passed the test of practice. They will ensure coordinated training and selection of female officials, officials from ethnic minorities, and non-Party officials. They will ensure that retired officials are well taken reliance of.

    We will breathe both strict and caring, and region equal accent on providing incentives and imposing constraints. They will better the performance assessment and evaluation system for officials, institute incentive mechanisms and mechanisms to allow for and address errors, and win a lucid stand in supporting officials who are willing to assume responsibility, who win a down-to-earth approach in their work, and who carry out not quest personal gain. Party organizations at every flush should reliance about officials working at the primary level, and alleviate solve the problems and difficulties they encounter.

    People with talent are a strategic resource for China as it endeavors to achieve national rejuvenation and sojourn ahead in international competition. They must ensue the principle of the Party exercising leadership over personnel, assemble the best minds across the land and draw fully on their expertise, and step up efforts to compose China a talent-strong country.

    We will pursue a more proactive, open, and efficient policy on training competent professionals. They should value people with talent, breathe obliging at identifying talent, absorb the foresight to employ them, breathe earnest to preserve them, and welcome them into their ranks. This will better enable us to attract lustrous people from both within and outside the Party and both in China and abroad to join us in pursuing the Great endeavor of the Party and the people. They will cheer and steer people with talent to travail in remote destitute areas, brim areas with mainly ethnic minority populations, and former revolutionary base areas, as well as in communities and on the frontlines. They will travail to foster a positive environment in which everyone wants, strives, and is able to transcend themselves, and can carry out plenary justice to their talents. With this, they aim to espy that in every field the creativity of talent is given Great expression and their ingenuity and expertise tide freely.

    4. Strengthening primary-level Party organizations

    Primary-level Party organizations carry out the groundwork to ensure the Party's lines, principles, policies, decisions, and plans are implemented.

    We will travail to ensure that primary-level Party organizations in enterprises, villages, Party and government departments, schools, research institutes, sub-districts, communities, and companionable organizations play a key role in communicating the Party's propositions, carrying out the Party's decisions, overseeing community-level companionable governance, uniting and mobilizing the people, and promoting reform and development. In doing so, they will focus on improving the organizational capability of primary-level Party organizations and give priority to enhancing their political functions.

    Party branches should fulfill their responsibilities for directly guiding, managing, and overseeing their members and for organizing, communicating with, uniting, and serving the people. They should cheer their members to play an exemplary role.

    We must exercise the system of holding Party offshoot common meetings, meetings of Party offshoot committees, Party group meetings, and Party lectures. They will develop novel ways for setting up primary-level Party organizations and for them to carry out their activities, strengthen the training of their heads, and expand their reach. They must travail harder to address the problems that some primary-level Party organizations are weak, ineffective, and marginalized. They will expand intraparty democracy at the primary level, compose Party affairs more transparent, and ensure channels are open for Party members to participate in Party affairs, oversee Party organizations and officials, and submit opinions and suggestions to the Party organization at the next flush up.

    We will carry out more to recruit novel Party members from among industrial workers, young people working in agriculture, well-educated groups, and people working in non-public economic entities and companionable organizations. They will give more incentives, solicitude, and assistance to Party members. They will compose their guidance and management of Party members better targeted and more effective, and handle Party members that don't meet the notice in a prudent and systematic way.

    5. Working ceaselessly to better Party conduct and invoke Party discipline

    Our Party comes from the people, has its roots among the people, and is dedicated to serving the people. Once the Party becomes disengaged from the people, it will lose its vitality. In improving Party conduct, they must focus on maintaining the Party's close bond with the people, preserve them firmly in mind, develop a closer affinity with them, and preserve working to foster stronger public champion for the Party's governance. They must earnestly address complete issues the people are strongly concerned about, and resolutely amend any behavior that undermines the people's interests.

    Our Party officials should lead by instance in consolidating and pile on the advances made in implementing the central Party leadership's eight-point conclusion on improving Party and government conduct. They should continue to address the exercise of formalities for formalities' sake, bureaucratism, hedonism, and extravagance, and contest mindsets and acts of privilege seeking. They will focus on strengthening the enforcement of political and organizational discipline, and exhaust this to prompt stricter observance of discipline on upholding integrity, on interacting with the people, and regarding travail and life.

    We will continue to carry out criticism and self-criticism in keeping with the principle of learning from mistakes to obviate recurrence and treating the illness to save the patient. They will conduct four forms of oversight over discipline compliance, identify problems early and amend them while they are nascent. Party organizations with the power to superintend officials will breathe given corresponding power to win disciplinary action as called for, and accountability for overseeing discipline compliance will breathe tightened up on. They will raise Party members' awareness of discipline and strengthen discipline enforcement, and claim that Party members and officials hold discipline in awe and respect, carry out not cross the line, and become used to working and animate under oversight and constraints.

    6. Securing a sweeping conquest in the fight against corruption

    The people resent corruption most; and corruption is the greatest threat their Party faces. They must absorb the resolve and tenacity to persevere in the never-ending fight against corruption. Only by intensifying efforts to address both the symptoms and root causes of corruption—by making positive that officials are honest, government is clean, and political affairs are handled with integrity—can they avoid history's cycle of rise and tumble and ensure the long-term stability of the Party and the country.

    Currently, the fight against corruption remains grave and complex; they must remain as firm as a rock in their resolve to build on the overwhelming momentum and secure a sweeping victory. They will continue to espy that there are no no-go zones, no ground is left unturned, and no tolerance is shown for corruption. They will impose tight constraints, maintain a tough stance and a long-term deterrence, castigate both those who win bribes and those who offer them, and obviate interest groups from arising within the Party.

    We will institute a system of disciplinary inspection for city and county flush Party committees in an intensified application to address corruption that occurs on the people's doorsteps. Wherever offenders may flee, they will breathe brought back and brought to justice. They will travail for the adoption of national anti-corruption legislation and create a corruption reporting platform that covers both disciplinary inspection commissions and supervision agencies.

    We will strengthen deterrence so officials don't dare to, strengthen the cage of institutions so they're unable to, and strengthen their vigilance so they absorb no crave to relegate acts of corruption. Their political environment will, through indefatigable efforts, dote seas fallen smooth and rivers running clear, breathe spotless and free of corruption.

    7. Improving Party and state oversight systems

    To better the Party's capacity to purify itself, it is essential that they strengthen Party self-supervision and matter ourselves to public oversight. They must strengthen checks on and oversight over the exercise of power, and ensure that power is exercised under public oversight, in broad daylight, and in an institutional cage. They will strengthen top-down organizational oversight, better bottom-up democratic oversight, exercise peer oversight, and tighten regular supervision over Party members in positions of leadership. They will intensify political inspection to identify problems and ensure that deterrence works; they will establish an oversight network that facilitates coordination in disciplinary inspections conducted at different levels.

    We will deepen reform of the national supervision system, conduct trials throughout the country, and establish supervisory commissions at the national, provincial, prefectural, and county levels, which travail together with the Party's disciplinary inspection commissions as one office while keeping their own identity. This will ensure that supervision covers everyone working in the public sector who exercises public power. A national supervision law will breathe formulated. Supervisory commissions will breathe given responsibilities, powers, and means of investigation in accordance with law. The exercise of shuanggui1 will breathe replaced by detention.

    We will reform the auditing management system and better the statistics system. They will establish an authoritative, efficient oversight system with complete coverage under the Party's unified command; and integrate intraparty oversight with oversight by state organs, democratic oversight, judicial oversight, public oversight, and oversight through public opinion. complete this will create a powerful synergy for conducting oversight.

    8. Strengthening every dimension of their capacity for governance

    To lead a big socialist country of more than 1.3 billion people, their Party must breathe both politically sturdy and highly competent.

    We should breathe obliging at learning. They will foster a sturdy atmosphere of learning and practicing in the Party, and build their Party into a Marxist learning party. They will nurse a infatuation of learning in their people.

    We should breathe obliging at exercising political leadership. They should adopt a strategic perspective, and develop creative thinking and a dialectical approach to thinking; they should arbitrator in terms of the rule of law, and arbitrator about worst-case scenarios. They should formulate sound Party lines, principles, and policies and resolutely implement them, ensuring that the Party exercises overall leadership and coordinates travail in complete areas.

    We should breathe obliging reformers and pioneers. They should breathe enterprising, travail creatively in light of actual conditions, and adeptly apply information technology, including the internet, in their work.

    We should breathe obliging at promoting sound development. They should effectively attach into exercise the novel development philosophy, and continue to fracture novel ground in development.

    We should breathe obliging at exercising law-based governance. They will act more quickly to attach in region a system of Party rules and regulations that covers complete aspects of Party leadership and Party building, and strengthen and better Party leadership over bodies of state power.

    We should breathe obliging at engaging with the people. They will develop novel systems, mechanisms, ways, and means for this work. They will press trade unions, Chinese Communist Youth League organizations, women's federations, and other people's organizations to strengthen their political consciousness, become more advanced, and better portray the people; to play their role as bridges linking the Party with the people; and to organize and motivate the people to ensue the Party.

    We should breathe obliging at implementing policy. They should breathe open and frank, win efficient measures to address real issues, and quest obliging outcomes. They should breathe ready both to act resolutely and swiftly and to compose sustained efforts to tackle tough issues head-on. They should absorb the pertinacity to hammer away until a assignment is done, and compose concrete, meticulous, and efficient efforts in complete their work.

    We should breathe obliging at managing risks. They will better risk prevention and control mechanisms in complete areas, skillfully handle various involved issues, overcome complete difficulties and obstacles that they meet on their way, and preserve a firm hold on the initiative in their work.

    Comrades,

    A Great cause calls for leadership of a sturdy party. As long as their Party keeps itself competent and strong, always remains accurate to the people's aspiration and works in concert with the people, they can and will navigate the Great ship mien the Great dream of the Chinese people to conquer the waves and compass their destination.

    Comrades,

    The Chinese nation is a Great nation; it has been through hardships and adversity but remains indomitable. The Chinese people are a Great people; they are industrious and brave; and they never respite in the pursuit of progress. The Communist Party of China is a Great party; it has the courage to fight and the mettle to win.

    The wheels of history roll on; the tides of the times are vast and mighty. History looks kindly on those with resolve, with drive and ambition, and with plenty of guts; it won't wait for the hesitant, the apathetic, or those bashful of a challenge.

    All of us in the Party must travail difficult and live simply, guard against arrogance and impetuosity; and lose no time in progressing along the long march of the novel era.

    We must conscientiously safeguard the solidarity and solidarity of the Party, maintain the Party's abysmal bond with the people, and strengthen the Great solidarity of the Chinese people of complete ethnic groups and the Great solidarity of complete the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation at home and abroad. They must unite complete the forces that can breathe united and travail as one to progress toward the brilliant future of national rejuvenation.

    A nation will prosper only when its young people thrive; a country will breathe plenary of hope and absorb a Great tomorrow only when its younger generations absorb ideals, ability, and a sturdy sense of responsibility. The Chinese Dream is a dream about history, the present, and the future. It is a dream of their generation, but even more so, a dream of the younger generations. The Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation will breathe realized ultimately through the endeavors of young people, generation by generation.

    All of us in the Party should reliance about young people and set the stage for them to excel. To complete their young people, you should absorb firm ideals and convictions, aim high, and absorb your feet firmly on the ground. You should ride the waves of your day; and in the course of realizing the Chinese Dream, fulfill your youthful dreams, and write a vivid chapter in your indefatigable endeavors to serve the interests of the people.

    A just cause should breathe pursued for the common good. Rooted in a land of more than 9.6 million square kilometers, nourished by a nation's culture of more than 5,000 years, and backed by the invincible obligate of more than 1.3 billion people, they absorb an infinitely vast stage of their era, a historical heritage of unmatched depth, and incomparable resolve that enable us to forge ahead on the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

    We, the entire Party and the Chinese people of complete ethnic groups, should rally closely around the Party Central Committee, and hold tall the banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics. They should preserve on working with Great determination to accomplish the three historic tasks of advancing modernization, realizing China's reunification, and preserving world peace and promoting common development; they should secure a conclusive conquest in finishing the pile of a moderately prosperous society in complete respects, strive for the Great success of socialism with Chinese characteristics for a novel era, realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, and espy that their people realize their aspirations for a better life.


    The cislunar econosphere (part 2) | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

      by Ken MurphyMonday, February 27, 2012 Bookmark and Share Earth-Moon Lagrange 1 (EML1)

    The next hurdle is a difficult one. Facilities could breathe established in GEO orbit that would breathe quite useful in dealing with things in that neighborhood, dote harvesting the zombiesats. However, there is a better destination a bit farther out at the Earth-Moon L-1 point. As can breathe eminent in the diagram above, the delta-V (change in velocity) cost is less than that of going just from LEO to GEO. The delta-V cost of going from LEO to EML1, and then back down to GEO, is the very as a median delta-V from LEO straight to GEO. In the industry this slight trick is known as a bi-elliptic transfer variant of a Hohmann trajectory. complete values in the diagram approach from Larson & Pranke’s Human Spaceflight: Mission Analysis & Design. Actual orbital trajectories absorb so many variables that these should breathe seen as illustrative, rather than exact, values.

    Staging from EML1 offers a host of advantages that more than overcome the difficulties of getting set up there. One of the perhaps more controversial advantages is to provide a partial solution to the orbital debris problem. One of the benefits of EML1 is that it is largely indifferent, fuel-wise, to any of the inclinations in LEO. In the diagram above this can breathe envisioned by rotating the ellipses on an axis connecting the focus of the Earth and Moon. So not only could any of the LEO facilities mentioned previously serve as a staging point to EML1, but EML1 can serve as a staging point to any of the LEO stations, or any other inclination of interest, such as those containing objects that are a traffic hazard in their orbital neighborhood.

    Staging from EML1 offers a host of advantages that more than overcome the difficulties of getting set up there.

    There is a slight penalty for the Earth’s chubbiness around the middle, in terms of inclination (particularly polar orbits—curse you, J2!), but with aerobraking the job could breathe done for under 1 km/s of delta-V, a number that is eye-opening, but requires the exhaust of a heatshield that has been carried out to EML1 (from somewhere). Using a direct transfer to the orbit, the cost is around 4 km/sec delta-V, but with much less of a heat-shield requirement. For debris retrieval purposes these would likely breathe altitudes of 800 to 1,000 kilometers, where a lot of the Earth-observation traffic is located. The strategy I would adopt would breathe to retrieve as many satellites (non-functioning and thus potential debris, obviously) near a particular inclination, perhaps with “sticky harpoons”, from newest to oldest (as the older ones absorb demonstrated stability over time), and then win them back to EML1 for forensic analysis and repurposing of the parts.

    The hurdle is the trip up the gravity well. A delta-V of 4 km/sec to EML1 from LEO is not insignificant, so the trip has to breathe worth it through the creation of value. For LEO debris retrieval, one possible solution would breathe to launch a fuel payload from Earth directly to the target inclination to breathe retrieved by the vessel from EML1 as it collects objects of interest in LEO.

    What else does staging from EML1 enable?

    A) The delta-V from EML1 to GEO and back is less than the delta-V just from LEO to GEO. If you’re going to breathe making trips to GEO, EML1 is the long-term transport solution. What would Sirius XM Radio‘s [NASDAQ: SIRI] monetary condition breathe if, instead of having to build out a novel satellite well ahead of schedule, and at significant cost in the capital markets, they could absorb spent much less to dispatch out a technician to fix the problem? If you’re retrieving salvage from GEO, you can carry out forensic analysis on that debris to better understand space weathering effects. You can then repurpose that debris for something else (except for the antennas and other strategic components, which DARPA is interested in), dote the creation of a…

    B) Solar system-wide network of data-gathering probes that provide ongoing data over decades, rather than expensive one-off missions as they carry out now that provide a spurt of data that is then pored over for years until the next data set arrives. EML1 can serve as an on-ramp to the Inter-Planetary Superhighways (IPS), whereby “Hubble-ized” (i.e. upgradeable) probes, likely using instruments sent from Earth and bolted on a salvaged bus and power supply from GEO, are sent out to particular stations of interest around the solar system. These would provide relays to communicate around the Sun, as in the case of probes sent to the Venus equilaterals (Sun-Venus L-4 and L-5), or preserve an eye on the asteroid belt at the Sun-Mars L-2 or Sun-Jove L-1. Out-of-plane objects coming in from the Oort Cloud could breathe watched from a variety of locations. The point is not the utility of observations of any one benevolent or specific locations, but rather that with a change in their thinking they can change the passage they study their Solar system. They can collect ongoing data, giving us better situational awareness, and they can service and upgrade their instruments a la Hubble by bringing them back to EML1 on the IPS. They don’t absorb to preserve throwing very capital-intensive (human and fiscal) tools into the void for intermittent datasets.

    C) bethink the materials science research being conducted at facilities down in LEO? By the time you’re putting facilities at EML1, there should absorb been some promising results, some of which may breathe ready to dawdle into the production phase. Freeflyer platforms can breathe launched from EML1 into a trajectory constrained by the sphere of influence of the Moon whereby, after a inevitable era of time, it will return to the vicinity of an EML1 facility where it can breathe retrieved for processing. The completed production elope can breathe harvested, and the next round of production set up before it’s sent back out on its course. The finished product would then breathe shipped back down to LEO, to whichever particular facility had arranged for its production.

    D) Eye in the Sky: in addition to trying to preserve track of orbital assets and debris from Earth’s surface, facilities at EML1 will offer the occasion to espy the “big picture” complete the passage out to GEO from a vantage point roughly 85 percent of the passage to the Moon. In this passage it could terminate up as a node in an orbital traffic control network.

    E) Clutter-free travail environment: EML1 doesn’t require much station keeping—on the order of hundreds of meters per second per year or less—but it is required. Undirected objects won’t hang around very long, getting perturbed into one of the two gravity wells on either side.

    There will approach a day where the people who are itching to fade beyond LEO will carry out so.

    F) “Specializationator”: having service facilities at EML1 provides the occasion to modularize the traffic in cislunar space. It doesn’t compose much sense to carry Lunar landing legs from the Earth to LEO, LEO to the Moon, and then from low Lunar orbit (LLO) to the surface, the only time they’re really actually needed. Instead, account bolting them on at EML1. Complicated waldos and cargo racks for retrieving satellites and other debris aren’t really needed anywhere other than for travail in GEO and perhaps LEO. Don’t carry them around when they aren’t needed. Instead, regain your supplies when they’re needed for where they’re needed… at EML1.

    G) Asteroid Watch: a less accepted suggestion is to absorb rig at EML1 facilities dedicated to identifying and characterizing the Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs). This would alleviate lay the groundwork for later missions to asteroids staged from EML1.

    H) EML1 also provides an exemplar staging region for missions to the Moon. It offers 708/12½ (that’s 708 hours per Lunar “day”, 12½ “days” per year) access to the entirety of the Moon’s surface. Poles, equator, mid-latitude, front side, back side, it’s complete about 2.5 km/sec delta-V each way, down and up. Rather than breathe tied to a unique location on the Moon, facilities at EML1 could provide champion logistics to a base at the south pole, while also providing a staging ground for sorties to areas of interest, dote the skylights in Marius Hills.

    Remember, complete LEO inclinations of interest can regain to EML1 for about the very delta-V, a slight under 4 km/sec change in velocity. This helps in things dote standardizing the propulsion systems and fuel depot loads for trans-LEO trips. This means that the guy who is selling orbital depots to NASA for exhaust at their Kennedy inclination facility can also sell them to the folks with facilities at 41° inclinations, and even to the EML1 folks, as it’s the very change in velocity to park back down in LEO propulsively.

    There will approach a day where the people who are itching to fade beyond LEO will carry out so. piece of it will breathe the record-setting aspects of things, as with the Space Adventures folks, whose trip around the Moon, while expensive, might allow them to become the farthest travelers beyond Earth, ever—until the next folks to carry out so. Others will want to regain in early on setting up facilities out at EML1 and on the Moon. While their companies may crater, they’ll nevertheless breathe the ones with the experience, and those who approach after will absorb to learn from them.

    Once at EML1, things dote zombiesats in GEO and debris in LEO can start being addressed, and this will drive claim for propellant. In the early years this will, by necessity, breathe shipped from Earth, but pressure arises early to source at least the oxygen component (about seven-eighths of the mass needed) from somewhere else. The analytic source of this propellant will breathe the Moon; it’s a one-day-away (from EML1) source of huge amounts of oxygen that can breathe extracted by a variety of methods. At first, the main claim will approach from EML1 in champion of the crews dropping down to GEO, HEO, MEO, and LEO for some satellite husbandry, but eventually it will become possible to ship it complete the passage down to LEO for exhaust in the fuel depots there. This would allow for much more significant shipments to orbit of hydrogen from Earth. Some of which will breathe shipped on to EML1.

    A word on orbital fuel depots. The space community seems to dote to bifurcate, and in the case of fuel depots that seems to breathe along the lines of LOX/LH for everything vs. storable propellants dote RP-1 or UDMH, each of which absorb their pluses and minuses. My view is that the orbital depot solution will evolve along the lines of using long-term storables for tugboat duties, such as fetching freeflyer platforms or satellites post-launch. The benevolent of stuff that is done on an ongoing basis and will exigency ready access to propellant.

    When the LOX/LH is needed, it’s likely to prove up at about the very time it’s needed, or shortly before if it’s shipped as water and needs to breathe cracked (which not every facility may breathe able to provide due to power needs). It will breathe more of a just-in-time process to reflect the inherent volatility, especially of hydrogen, which just loves to regain through tiny gaps. A variety of methods absorb been proposed to allow for longer-term storage of cryogenic propellants. It’s not a question of either/or, it’s a question of how the people doing the travail of meeting market claim actually solve the problem.

    The complement of EML1 on the near side of the Moon is EML2 on the far side of the Moon. It is sometimes offered as an alternative to EML1, but in the near-term doesn’t offer any particular advantages to compose it a priority over EML1 as a development destination.

    The Moon as anchor tenant: grayfields for development

    Oxygen, which comprises some 40–45 percent of the Moon’s composition, although locked up in rocks, was quickly identified as a key commercial product for cislunar and trans-lunar space activities. Production of oxygen from Lunar sources leads to the production of slag as a byproduct. This slag is not useless, and can serve at least two functions. One is radiation cladding for vehicles operating in cislunar space. The slag can breathe shaped into pieces that can breathe bolted on facilities at EML1 and vehicles operating from there to other destinations. These would clearly breathe of interest to folks who are staging missions from EML1 out to nearby asteroids. The other exhaust is as heat shields. These could breathe used by vehicles traveling from EML1 to LEO and want to exhaust aerobraking to save fuel, or could breathe shipped down to LEO to breathe used as a bolt-on heat shield for vehicles returning from LEO to Earth (which would save weight on the launch phase of the taxi).

    One of the key difficulties that people absorb about resource utilization on the Moon is that it is going to absorb to breathe a process of aggregation of the materials desired. The challenge then becomes how to compose lemonade from that lemon.

    Mining oxygen on the Moon can champion economic activity in cislunar space, dote salvaging the zombiesats in GEO, and allow for greater shipments of hydrogen from Earth. Other materials wrested from the soil, dote rare earth elements and metals, could champion microgravity production facilities in cislunar space whose products, dote foamed metals and unique alloys, would likely find a market on Earth.

    One of the key difficulties that people absorb about resource utilization on the Moon is that it is going to absorb to breathe a process of aggregation of the materials desired. Mother Nature and water haven’t acted on the Moon to alleviate pool resources together. repercussion violence and destruction has thoroughly distributed the constituents, and no matter what you’re trying to collect, you’re going to absorb to process big volumes of material to regain any amount of usable stuff that you’re interested in. The challenge then becomes how to compose lemonade from that lemon.

    One instance is the Solar-Wind Implanted Elements (SWIEs). The Lunar Sourcebook by Heiken et al. notes that if one cubic meter of regolith is heated up to approximately 800°C, it will generate approximately ten atmospheres of pressure of volatile gases. These can breathe drawn off and treated separately, perhaps by creative exhaust of chilly traps at the polar regions to progressively liquefy and draw off successive elements from the product. This sets the stage for helium-3 (He-3) processing of the helium portion of the gases generated. This won’t breathe generating big amounts of He-3, but if the occasion is there as piece of this process it should breathe taken odds of. One consideration is that samples from each batch of regolith processed needs to breathe forwarded to scientists for processing in their “ice core” studies.

    The regolith of the Moon contains the history of the Sun’s output over billions of years (the SWIEs), as well as its journey around the galactic core (GCRs, Galactic Cosmic Rays), embedded in its grains. Scientific processing can piece together that history, in the very passage the glacier core samples absorb given us background on the composition of the Earth’s atmosphere over time. Additionally, the countenance of the Moon bears the scars, the astroblemes, of aeons of impacts, and can serve as a chronometer of repercussion objects in the Earth’s neighborhood for as long as we’ve had the Moon. So there are convincing scientific reasons, with direct repercussion on terrestrial life, for having rig on the Moon. Having ready access to the Moon means that the scientists are going to want to set up shop and carry out research in situ. These are complete datasets that can contribute significantly to the understanding they are developing of Earth. Other areas of scientific interest are explored in the report by the Space Studies Board of the National Academies, “The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon”.

    A longtime favorite in the scientific community is to absorb radio astronomy facilities on the far side of the Moon. The Moon would provide a shield against the radio pollution coming from Earth, creating the ultimate smooth zone for research. This quietude is spoiled by specular reflection of terrestrial signals off the miniature bodies in the solar system, but at a flush of a whisper compared with the shouting from Earth. Some are concerned that facilities at EML2 (basically birthright above where the telescopes would be, though the halo orbit could breathe quite large), could more materially influence the hullabaloo environment. An alternative might breathe to position pole-sitting solar sails above the Lunar poles to provide communication links into the perpetually-shadowed “everdark” craters. And if that’s not enough, NASA has identified a big number of things to carry out on the Moon to preserve their scientists busy.

    As more and more activities are undertaken on the Moon, the number of caretakers of the rig is going to grow.

    The products that approach from the Moon will start out as very low-value-added goods, with slight processing required before getting shipped up to the processing and production freeflyer facilities in cislunar space. Oxygen is one, radiation cladding another, and as they add rig to the stockpile on the Moon they can start creeping up the value chain. One instance is low-quality solar cells, produced from the abundant silicates in the soil. Extruded metal structural elements could breathe developed for exhaust on the Moon, as well as in cislunar space and even beyond for things dote solar power satellites in GEO,or the construction of Mars-bound craft at EML1.

    Later, as increasingly sophisticated capabilities accrue on the Lunar surface, production methods will become more sophisticated, such as breaking down the processing remnants from regolith, likely through some combination of pyrolitic and electrophoretic methods, and storing the results. Having stockpiles of vacuum-processed ultra-pure source elements (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, titanium, etc.), and 3D printing technology may bring us one step closer to the concept of “replicators”.

    The environment of the Moon also creates its own unique laboratory that will breathe exploited in unusual ways. It has been suggested that cutting-edge nanotechnology research breathe moved to the Moon, providing a natural quarantine for the inevitable “oops” moment. The very holds accurate for the nastiest of biological research endeavors. Google Lunar X PRIZE competitor Moon Express has announced that they will comprise a telescope on their rover, the first of likely many telescopic facilities that will breathe set up on the Moon. Another competitor, Astrobotic Technology, is actively seeking payloads, and has published a price list.

    The Moon can also serve as a celestial timekeeper. Many cultures around the world exhaust the Lunar calendar, so it is not inconceivable that at some point someone builds a Solar Cathedral that marks the dawn of each Lunar month.

    As more and more activities are undertaken on the Moon, the number of caretakers of the rig is going to grow. The earliest persons spending time on the Moon are likely to breathe the engineers who repair the robots and scientists doing field travail for calibration and verification purposes. As the numbers increase, more champion personnel are going to breathe needed. Someone’s going to build a still, and expect plants to breathe very accepted pets. Regolith will breathe added to the growing medium early on, and those plants that provide foodstuffs in addition to oxygen will breathe particularly favored.

    Eventually some of those foodstuffs are going to breathe exported to cislunar space: to facilities at EML1 for starters, but expect claim eventually for Lunar foodstuffs from Earth. There is likely also to breathe claim on Earth for raw Lunar regolith, in bulk, for exhaust in gardens, greenhouses, and other applications.

    Any process that uses vacuum—and there are many—can find a home on the Moon. Nearly 39,000,000 square kilometers are available, of a character far superior to that which can breathe generally provided on Earth. To preserve that vacuum at that flush of quality, industry is going to absorb to device out some best practices very quickly. It was estimated that each of the Apollo landings effectively doubled the ambient Lunar atmosphere. That speaks more to the almost complete absence of atmosphere rather than to the pollution-generating aspects of the Lunar Excursion Modules, but the point is Important nonetheless. It might breathe sensible then to account putting outgassing operations in abysmal craters so that they can alleviate serve as a sort of catchment for those gases. This would breathe particularly efficient in the everdark craters of the poles.

    We’re seeing an increasing shift from viewing space as the domain of scientists and engineers alone, to a view of space as a region to conduct growing levels of economic activities to pursue future prosperity.

    In his 1965 reserve The Case for Going to the Moon, Neil Ruzic polled scientists and researchers in academia and industry. When queried about what kinds of processes might breathe done better or easier on the Moon, results included, for those in the vacuum industry: vacuum cast alloys, vacuum welds, electron optical systems, optical components, pharmaceuticals and biologicals, industrial chemicals, and energy conversion materials and devices. He also notes the advantages that levitation melting can provide, sidestepping the issue of crucible contamination of the product.

    One instance of a product that would capitalize from vacuum is the production of anhydrous glass. Its mechanical properties absorb long been suspected of being exceptional. However, its optical properties generally haven’t been considered. It may well breathe that an early niche on the Moon is the production of superior optical components for export to whomever wants the particular properties offered by Moonglass.

    The author also points out that most if not complete of the products produced on the Moon will not breathe for export to Earth. They will breathe destined primarily for exhaust on the Moon: spare parts to fix the myriad robots, useful objects for the habitats dote furniture, and novel tools specific to the Lunar environment. Nevertheless, the creation of a transport network from Earth to LEO, LEO to EML1, and EML1 to a variety of destinations including the Moon, will involve that there will breathe the occasion for exports, and someone is going to win advantage. Bags of raw regolith for “Moon Gardens” back on Earth. The cislunar entrepreneur producing vacuum globes may resolve to add a line of regolith globes to their offerings, a unique variant of the “snow globe” so accepted Earthside. Lunar handicrafts, dote jewelry made of thin-sections mounted on polarized LEDs, might fetch a inelastic premium, and there will always breathe markets for vicestuffs dote moonshine and “lunajuana”.

    As the infrastructure develops, increasingly sophisticated and higher value-added products can breathe developed. novel design aesthetics can breathe explored. Eventually there will breathe tourists: those who carry out not absorb a specific assignment on the Moon. Except for a few scattered exceptions, the facilities will breathe unlikely to accommodate the additional life-support strain that tourists would entail. Nevertheless, their tickets alleviate pay the rent, so ways to accommodate them will breathe found. Once the tourists start showing up, you’ll start seeing things dote “rego-boarding” the craters, which should breathe encouraged as the extreme sports crowd will alleviate drive advances in Moonsuit technology. They’ll absorb other needs and desires to breathe met as well, which is the foundation of commerce opportunity. Many of these absorb been explored over the years in the pages of the Moon Miners’ Manifesto.

    Conclusion

    The above should not breathe viewed as a roadmap, but rather an exploration of the myriad ways that exist to create value in cislunar space. What finally does betide will breathe driven more by necessity than desire. commerce grows by responding to needs.

    What should breathe lucid is that economic development is not easy. It depends on involved webs of inter-relationships nurturing one another to grow the whole. It also requires an openness to pursuing things in a novel way, even if they are perceived as disruptive to existing markets. Potent forces are always marshaled to resist changes to the status quo, but if humanity desires long-term prosperity it must continually re-evaluate what it is doing, and must secure access to increasing amounts of resources, both energy and material. Those resources exist in abundance off-world. They can pursue them, or continue trying to reallocate the effectively fixed amount of obtainable resources available on Earth, pursuing increasingly marginal supplies.

    We’re seeing an increasing shift from viewing space as the domain of scientists and engineers alone, to a view of space as a region to conduct growing levels of economic activities to pursue future prosperity. also slowly coming into view is the realization is that this is one industry with exceedingly tall barriers to entry in which they absorb a lucid commercial competitive advantage. The priority should breathe on growing that industry as a specialization in which the United States excels. The Moon Society will further explore this field with their track at this year’s International Space development Conference in Washington, D.C., which is entitled “The CisLunar EconoSphere”. Speakers interested in participating are encouraged to contact the National Space Society.

    It starts with assured access to orbit by several suppliers, and suborbital researchers using parabolic flights to warm up for eventual facilities on orbit. Cubesats and Nanosats can then provide design experience for future experimenters. Bigelow Aerospace modules can breathe leased to research consortiums for private research. Fuel depots can gas up vehicles for the next step out. This technology is not beyond their grasp, but the government cannot provide it unto the American citizenry. The American citizenry must compose it happen, through their industry, initiative, and through investing in the technology and infrastructure to compose it happen. They can let it wither on the vine, as they absorb with so many other industries, or they can compose it betide and the entire world will benefit, as they absorb to date. The preference is entirely ours.

    Bibliography

    Apollo Era Lunar Plant Biology

    Cordiner, Ralph J. “Competitive Private Enterprise in Space”. From Peacetime Uses of Outer Space, 1961.

    Heiken, concede et al (eds.) Lunar Sourcebook: a user’s steer to the Moon. Cambridge University Press. 1991.

    International Space University 1988 SSP, “International Lunar Initiative Organization”. 1992.

    International Space University 1989 SSP, “Artemis: a program to identify and map Lunar resources”. 1989.

    International Space University 2001 SSP, “C.A.S.H. 2021: Commercial Access and Space Habitation”. 2001.

    Jernigan, C.M. & E. Pentecost, “Space Industrialization Opportunities”. NASA Marshall. 1985.

    Joosten, Kent & Lisa Guerra. “Early Lunar Resource Utilization: A Key To Human Exploration”. AIAA 93-4784. 1993.

    Kokh, Peter (ed.) Moon Miners’ Manifesto.

    Larson, Wiley & Linda Pranke. Human Spaceflight: Mission Analysis & Design. McGraw-Hill. 1999.

    Lewis, John S. et al (eds.) Resources of Near-Earth Space. University of Arizona Press. 1993.

    Mendell, Wendell (ed.). Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century. Lunar and Planetary Institute. 1985.

    Mendell, Wendell (ed.). The Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century. NASA Conference Publication 3166, Volume 1 & 2. 1992.

    Murphy, Ken. “Cislunar Infrastructure Architectures” ISU. 2001.

    Murphy, Ken. “25 obliging Reasons to fade to the Moon”. OutoftheCradle.net. 2006.

    Murphy, Ken. “EML1: the next analytic destination”. The Space Review. 2011

    NASA SP-428: Space Resources and Space Settlements. NASA Ames. 1979

    NASA VSE Concept Exploration and Refinement. 2004

    NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Space Studies Board, Committee on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon. “The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon”. 2007.

    Prado, Mark, “PERMANENT: Projects to Employ Resources of the Moon and Asteroids Near Earth in the Near Term”. Fong Tong Enterprise Co., 1998.

    Sanders, Jerry et al. “Lunar In-Situ Resource Utilization: development and Implementation”. 2007.

    Seibert, Günther et al. “ESA SP1251 A World Without Gravity: Research in Space for Health and Industrial Processes”. 2001.

    Stine, G. Harry. The Space Enterprise. Penguin, 1982.

    Synthesis Group on America’s Space Exploration Initiative, America at the Threshold.

    Time-Life Books, Voyage through the Universe: Spacefarers. Time-Life Books Inc., 1989.


    Active BIPV Glass Facades: Current Trends of Innovation | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Along with the multifunctionality of the pile skin, BIPV today involves a novel aesthetics in synchronous architecture.

    Erika Saretta, Pierluigi Bonomo, Francesco Frontini

    ISAAC DACD SUPSI

     

    Abstract

    On the path towards the implementation of nearly zero-energy buildings, as stated by the European Commission, the integration of photovoltaics technology in buildings (BIPV) has been proven to breathe very fascinating in order to achieve the energy goals. In detail, the exhaust of glass BIPV modules is constantly improving due to the fact that they can supplant almost every conventional material of the pile envelope and they can actively contribute to the pile energy balance.

    But, is the transfer of PV in architecture only a matter of energy? Certainly not. Along with the multifunctionality of the pile skin, BIPV today involves a novel aesthetics in synchronous architecture. Thanks to innovative possibilities in glass development and customization for BIPV solution, a wide purview of architectural languages arises in current applications, ranging from the visible semantics of solar cells to the technological mimicry.

    The aim of this paper is to narrate the current researches and trends of innovation in the exhaust of BIPV glass for pile facades, through the discussion of some pilot case studies collected by the Swiss BIPV Competence focus (www.bipv.ch) in the framework of different projects. Moreover, this study will create a platform for a primary discussion aimed to narrate the innovative factors concerning the technological transfer of the PV glazing elements in the built environment.

     

    Introduction – BIPV and glass

    The exhaust of a material in architecture, in the course of pile history, has always been enriched with something other than simple technological innovation, including a symbolic spirit, expressing its own linguistic value, the change and the design power.

    In the common imaginary, for example, glass is the material that can express a sense of constructive and perceptual lightness, which peculiarities result in the physical dematerialization of the architectural protest and in obtaining a perceptual and psychological transparency.

    When they hear about photovoltaics, however, the image that is invoked in their intuition is a blue or black component that usually seems to “overload” the aesthetical image of a building. Even though a PV component has the basic role to produce renewable energy, this is not the main aspect concerning the “innovation in architecture”.

    The combination of glass and photovoltaics, despite their different appearance and materiality, seems to match well in terms of both aesthetics and functionality of the pile skin and the “BIPV glass” market is expected to grow in the forthcoming years [1].

    Moreover, both in architecture and research perspective, there are many products, flagship buildings, research projects and some arising innovation trends that portray drivers for a successful transfer of BIPV glass into the real built environment. Since a lot of requirements are more and more needed for a high-quality architectural project also compliant with challenging energy levels, these “innovation trends” can breathe interpreted as the “meeting points” between different fields: architecture, construction products, glass facades and energy. In accordance with this perspective, the authors will investigate and prove some of the innovative drivers that arose out of lighthouse projects in Switzerland.

     

    Innovation trends and some implementations into real buildings

    The source of BIPV is a pioneering experimentation conducted in architecture in 1978-82: a glazed surface of a residential unit in Munich designed by Thomas Herzog in collaboration with Fraunhofer ISE that is still today an undiscussed reference on both PV technology and integrated design approach. Since 1990s, the trends of BIPV has increased worldwide both in terms of research and industrial projects for improving BIPV products/processes and applications in buildings.

    For instance, one of the first BIPV glass façade has been realized in 1991 in the Public Utilities pile of Aachen (Germany) where PV cells absorb been included into insulation glass panels, which absorb been used to supplant the existing 20-years-old southern façade.

    The combination of PV cells and glass can also provide several advantages in technical terms, such as lower potential induced degradation (PID), higher mechanical resistance and better reliability than traditional PV modules [2]

    For instance, the presence of glass on both front and rear sides of the PV module allows a lower humidity and moisture penetration, reducing in such a passage the PID mechanism. However, not only technical advantages can breathe identified for BIPV glass, since nowadays several novel concepts and solutions are arising to allow the realization of active BIPV glass facades.

    In order to provide a lucid – but not exhaustive – vision of some of these concepts and solutions, the innovation trends for BIPV glass are presented as the results of the “meeting points” between different disciplines/fields. Specifically, the authors absorb identified four main trends of innovation: optimization of aesthetics and efficiency (energy and architecture); transformation of ideas into real products (architecture and construction), development of technological BIPV solutions (construction products and glass facades) and development of active BIPV facades (glass facades and energy).

     

    Energy and architecture: aesthetics and efficiency

    The increased interest in nearly zero-energy buildings, as defined by the European Directive (REF), has led attention to the pile envelope as a multifunctional and adaptive interface to breathe designed appropriately in order to the one hand reduce pile energy consumptions (with more efficient solution) interacting with the outdoor conditions, such as winds, humidity and solar radiation and on the other hand produce local renewable energy.

    Moreover, the increased attention in solar buildings has created also an interest in the novel role of BIPV facades, as active elements of the pile skin. To allow architects novel design opportunities for the aesthetical language of PV, researchers and module manufacturers are developing customized BIPV glass modules in terms of performance and visual appearance.

    In such a way, for example, PV cells can breathe camouflaged behind coloured patterns that completely dissimulate the original materiality of the PV cells. However, this involves a “shading” over the PV cells and a consequent reduction of the energy production, that needs to breathe carefully optimized in order to obtain an energy efficient customization of the BIPV modules.

    Namely the challenge to optimally poise the aesthetical character with the energy and electrical efficiency, reliability and safety is one of the drivers of innovation. Different customization techniques can breathe identified in the current developments:

    • glass surface techniques:

    Figure 1 ConstructPV module– UNSTUDIO design [3]Figure 1 ConstructPV module– UNSTUDIO design [3]

    - Sandblasting: technique that consists in spraying sand at tall velocities on the front glass surface, creating milky white patterns and sketch. Within the EU project ConstructPV [3], different BIPV glass modules absorb been designed and realized with this technique, paying attention to the poise between costs, energy output and visual effects (fig. 1). Other examples of BIPV glass modules realized with sandblasting are the ones designed by SolarGlasLabor [4], where additional colouring techniques are used (fig. 2).

    - Silk-screen printing: process that allows to print special ink on the glass surfaces in order to obtain a drawing. An fascinating instance of silk-screen printing has been developed by Ertex, that developed a process to obtain homogeneous BIPV glass modules in appearance [5]. In the framework of the EU project SmartFlex [6], a novel digital ceramic-based printing has been developed, enabling to print tall definition pictures (up to 720 dpi) on the glass (fig. 3). also in this case, the optimization of the aesthetics and energy outputs has been investigated in order to provide efficient BIPV glass solutions. Another instance of multi-colours ceramic digital printing on BIPV glass has been developed by the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences (fig. 4), where a specially developed manner ensures that, despite the exhaust of different colours, no partial shading and losses of more than 20% result [7].

    Figure 2 SolarGlasLabor module [4]Figure 2 SolarGlasLabor module [4]

    - Satin finish and glass printing: a satin finishing on the outer glass surface is combined with the silk-printing on the inner side. Therefore, there is a reduction of the glass transparency and a resulting coloured matte surface. Nevertheless, the treatment is carefully developed in order to allow light radiation to hit the PV cells, even though they are not visible.

    Figure 3 SmartFlex modules [6]Figure 3 SmartFlex modules [6]

    • exhaust of special solar filters:

    - scattering and reflection filters: this technique has been developed by CSEM [8]. On the glass pane a front selective filter is applied. This is capable to reflect and diffuse the visible spectrum providing a white appearance, while the infrared part is transmitted and converted into electricity. In such a way, there is an efficiency reduction of about 40% in comparison to a traditional module.

    - spectrally selective coating: thanks to a special sputtering process, SwissINSO SA obtained coloured BIPV glass modules. For example, the conversion efficiency of these modules with white coating is 11.4%, instead of 19.1% of benchmark modules [9]. The coloured coating is a thin-film deposited on the front surface by chemical etching and it allows to realize different colours such as grey, terracotta, blue, bluish-green, green and yellow.

    All of these techniques are carefully used in order to optimized the visual result and the efficiency of the photovoltaic production, since there is a reduction of the incident light on the PV cells.

    Figure 4 HSLU modules [7]Figure 4 HSLU modules [7]

    It’s fascinating to remark a double approach: on one hand a high-tech development has created novel techniques and materials (mainly transferring them from high-tech research fields such as material science or physics and optics) and on the other hand a transfer of techniques already used in the pile industry has been adopted to customize the front glass.

    It’s also relevant to account that in some cases some aspects such as the design/production flexibility, the pile performance and the cost-effectiveness still remain challenges to breathe achieved in order to ensure a feasible market penetration. What it is Important to highlight is that some of the above-mentioned customizable BIPV glasses absorb been already implemented into real buildings.

    In some cases, these are lighthouse projects but also some private projects are arising, as a proof of a nascent market for customizable BIPV glass in a cost-effective and affordable passage for the pile market. In table 1, some Swiss buildings with innovative BIPV glass concepts are briefly explained, including the customization glass technique, the energy performance, the gross façade cost and the modules manufacturer.

     

    Architecture and construction: from ideas to pile skin elements

    Today they can image a solar module that is completely recognizable within the urban environment, expressing its own materiality and language, rather than completely camouflaged with another appearance. In any case when such a novel and customized BIPV glass module is envisioned and designed, the next step is the characterization and testing to assess its performances, behaviour and reliability.

    In the case of BIPV, the modules should breathe compliant both with electrotechnical standards set in the IEC framework and the relevant pile standards as established in the European Construction Product Regulation CPR 305/2011[10] and local pile authorities. This means that the BIPV system should breathe capable to perform as a traditional pile skin element, as well as to produce an adequate electrical output in its expected life.

    In order to foster this concept, two European standards absorb been developed and published in 2016, the EN 50583:2016 “Photovoltaics in buildings” piece 1 and piece 2 [11]. With respect to BIPV glass module, there is also another international benchmark proposal– the ISO/DIS 18178:2014 “Glass in building.

    Laminated solar PV glass” [12] and, moreover, solar glass represents a topic in the Guidance for European Structural Design of Glass Components [13]. This is mainly due to the fact that BIPV glass modules absorb some peculiarities (e.g. cells, electrical wirings, operating conditions…) that should breathe taken into account differently than a conventional glass panel.

    Specifically, in the case of customized BIPV glass modules characterized by the above-mentioned customization techniques, it is fundamental to guarantee the durability of the glass treatments.

    Indeed, BIPV glass modules are subjected to twofold stresses: internal thermal stress within the encapsulant due to the increase of temperatures due to the electricity production of PV cells (up to 60°C in operating conditions during summertime) and external stresses due to outdoor weather conditions such as rain, temperature variations, humidity and hail, therefore it is necessary to ensure the maintenance of the module appearance during their expected life or during the expected façade life (as an even better option) by means of dedicated aging tests.

    This means that a BIPV module, due to its peculiarities as a multifunctional element, should breathe characterized, tested and assessed according to a specific multidisciplinary approach integrating (not just adding) both pile and energy/electrical aspects, in terms of performance, aesthetics, costs, etc.

     

    Table 1 Swiss buildings with innovative “aesthetics and energy” concepts.

    Sandblasting

    Figure 5 Autarkic MFH, Brutten. Source: umweltarena.chFigure 5 Autarkic MFH, Brutten. Source: umweltarena.ch

    Autarkic Multi-Family House – Brutten [14]

  • the BIPV glass modules are thin-film modules with a matte outer surface obtained thanks to a sandblasting treatment and with different sizes to apt the shape of the pile envelope
  • the module are glued to vertical back-profiles by means of SSG to breathe hung to the rear back-ventilated façade substructure
  • Façade cost = about 600 CHF/m2
  •  

     

    Figure 6 MFH Chrüzmatte, Aesch. Source: Schweizer Solarpreis 2016Figure 6 MFH Chrüzmatte, Aesch. Source: Schweizer Solarpreis 2016

    Silk-screen printing

    Multi-Family House Chrüzmatte – Aesch [15]

  • the BIPV glass modules are 2,04x3.32m and they are hung on the facade by means of pre-mounted back-rails (generally already used for glass facades)
  • the modules absorb been subjected to a silk-screen printing in order to provide continuity to the wood façade elements and provide a homogeneous visual effect
  • Module manufacturer: Ertex Solar
  •  

    Figure 7 PEB Renovation, Zürich. Source: Gasser Fassaden TechnikFigure 7 PEB Renovation, Zürich. Source: Gasser Fassaden Technik

    Satin finish and glass printing

    Plus-Energy pile Renovation – Zürich [16]

  • 18 different formats of frameless BIPV glass modules absorb been used to apt the gross pile envelope as panels of an aluminium rear-ventilated façade construction, using backrails (SSG-bonding on glass module) 
  • Glass panes absorb been treated in order to obtain an antireflective and matte surfaces. Colour in the purview from grey to anthracite with performance values of 109.2 W/m2
  • Façade cost = 800 to 900 CHF/m2
  • Module manufacturer: PVP Photovoltaik GmbH
  •  

    Figure 8 Solar Silo, Basel. Source: BFE-SUPSI Figure 8 Solar Silo, Basel. Source: BFE-SUPSI

    Selective coating

    Solar Silo – Basel [17]

  • Crystalline framed standard-size BIPV glass modules are integrated as tile roof and 2 different formats for frameless BIPV glass modules are used as cladding panels of the rearventilated façade
  • Reduction of efficiency depending on the colour: -4.6% grey, -6.2% blue, -5.4% green, -10.8% gold, in comparison to a traditional PV module without the coloured solar filter
  • Façade cost = 780CHF/m2
  • Module manufacturer: Antec/Kromatix Solarglas
  •  

    Construction and glass: technological BIPV solutions

    In the BIPV glass innovation field, one driving factor can breathe represented by the development of novel solar glasses to integrate as functional elements of the pile envelope, namely a construction product. Indeed, in accordance with the EN 50583-2, a BIPV system should also breathe capable to “form a construction product providing a duty as defined in the European Construction Product Regulation CPR 305/2011”.

    Therefore, not only BIPV glass module should breathe designed but the gross pile skin system (modules and substructures), that constitute the pile envelope engineering. A multidisciplinary approach is the key-challenge. In this framework, the BIPV glass “domain” such as some manufacturers should advert to the information and expertise of the glazed facade domain to properly develop and manufacture a component to breathe used as piece of the pile skin – e.g. some basic design principles concerning the mechanical safety such as avoid excess load in correspondence of continuous supports along the edges or avoid constrained supports such as rigid clamps.

    On the other hand, the BIPV glass “domain” can also give some inputs to the glass facade “domain” since there are some peculiarities that should breathe taken into account in the glass/façade design to ensure a liable and optimal energy/electrical behaviour, such as the improved residual resistance due to the presence of PV cells interconnectors [18] or the stiffness result of the junction box glued to the glass pane by means of sealant.

    Moreover, the exhaust of BIPV glass elements – especially for glazed opaque facades – has led attention also to the development and testing of fastening systems with back-rails and adhesive elements to compose invisible the mounting substructures and provide a homogeneous view of the glass façade (e.g. Structural Sealant Glazing), that absorb to guarantee the mechanical stability and resistance under the operating conditions.

    The import of a strict correlation of the BIPV glass behaviour with the pile skin technological solution is arisen also from the mechanical test activities developed within the SmartFlex project [6], where an “integrated approach” to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of laminated BIPV glass absorb been proposed [19].

    Moreover, another experience concerning mechanical tests absorb been performed by SUPSI also on a real BIPV façade system developed for the recladding of the Plus-Energy multi-family house in Chiasso (table 2). Indeed, in the first design option, even though the modules were mounted onto the metal substructure with a safety clamping system, the cladding PV module failed because of its tall deflection from the substructure.

    Then, the second design option – consisting in the exhaust safety clamps and the gluing of the cladding panel onto the rear metal profiles– succeeded [20] due to the greater rigidity and the proper connection with the BIPV glass element.

    Therefore, some of the previous examples, demonstrate that innovative solutions can arise often just from the investigation of the most liable and optimal solutions to integrate a BIPV glass modules in a conventional technical system of the pile envelope, also in a specific case study.

    Table 2 Swiss buildings with innovative conceptsTable 2 Swiss buildings with innovative concepts

     

    Glass and energy: active facades

    Since glass has been used as a pile envelope material in terminal two centuries, it provides a sense of de-materialization of the pile envelope and lightness of the architecture. In 1960’s the thought of energy savings has firstly led to the development of the insulating glass unit to reduce thermal dispersions and, more recently, to the development of special adaptive and involved systems, such as high-performance filters to reflect a portion of the light spectrum or thermochromic elements capable to blocks parts of solar radiation.

    Also thanks to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, published in 2010, the pile envelope has been identified as the smart interface between indoor and outdoor environment that can assume an additional function: the active energy generation thanks to integrated solar systems (photovoltaics and/or solar thermal). In this framework, some innovative façade concepts can breathe identified, such as the adaptive solar facades and the “bifacial” facades.

    An instance of the former concept has been developed by the ETH team [21] in order to realize BIPV solar shadings moved by pneumatic actuators in order to control the visibility and transparency of the rear façade (table 2).

    The latter concept takes advantages from the recent development of bifacial photovoltaic glass modules, which can produce solar energy thanks to the direct sun radiation on the front side and the reflected radiation on the rear side. In such a way, a second bifacial PV screen can breathe integrated in the pile envelope in order to exploit also the light reflected by the inner façade (e.g. in double skin facades).

    The CSEM pile in Neuchâtel is a Swiss instance reference that has been designed in 2015, for a total of 633 m2 and an expected annual energy production of about 50 - 60 MWh (table 2).

     

    Conclusion and summary

    Considering the relevant role of PV technology in the current energy policies at European and international level, a reflection about the innovation process affecting the pile field is crucial. This study has been developed in order to present some main innovation trends in the exhaust of architectural BIPV glass for pile facades. A lot of approaches and developments in terms of manufacturing techniques and real case-studies absorb been discussed.

    To sum up, from the recent references and products, these requirements calling for further developments arose from:

  • the exigency of novel BIPV glass products to champion a high-quality architectural project in the field of nearly-zero energy buildings;
  • the request of reliability for such products, according to both the electrical and pile field;
  • the complete functional/performance integration into the pile envelope system,
  • the combination of pile energy concepts and the façade engineering field.
  • Of course, although they attempted to provide evidence on some driving principles and trends of innovation, undoubtedly a number of aspects remain still to breathe investigated and muster for future research. What is fascinating to note is that some innovation trends are already on the path to breathe implemented in Swiss buildings.

    This is also due to the fact that BIPV glass facade are already competitive today in terms of cost [23], when compared to conventional glass façades, so that a “BIPV façade” can today also portray an alternative to a conventional pile envelope. Solar energy can portray an occasion for the glass industry, not only for semi-transparent parts but also for opaque facades.

    In conclusion, in recent years, the efforts in the development of glass facades absorb led to spectacular pile glass envelopes that are capable to portray resistance but, at the very time, weightless, even though this can appear an oxymoron. Today, pile glass envelope has the desultory to achieve a wider goal that is represented by its active contribution in the sustainability domain without losing the architectural elegance of glass.

     

    References

    [1] N-Tech Research. (2015). BIPV Glass Markets 2015-2022

    [2] Wei, Q., Wu, C., Liu, X., Zhang, S., Qian, F., Lu, J., Lian, W., Ni, P. (2016) The Glass-glass Module Using n-type Bifacial Solar Cell with PERT Structure and its Performance, Energy Procedia, Volume 92, 2016, Pages 750-754, ISSN 1876-6102, http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.egypro.2016.07.054

    [3] EU Project ConstructPV, available at: http:// www.constructpv.eu/

    [4] Geissler, A., Fornaro, P., Bianco, A. (2016). Visual Design of PV-Modules – a Crucial Factor for Façade Application Acceptance. Proceedings of the 32nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, pp. 2470 - 2475, ISBN: 3-936338-41-8, doi: 10.4229/EUPVSEC20162016-6DO.7.2

    [5] Dieter, M. (2016). Nursery +e kita in Marburg – solar architecture at its best. In Jens Schneider and Bernhard Weller (Eds.), Engineered Transparency 2016: Glass in Architecture and Structural Engineering (349-354). Ernst&Sohn.

    [6] EU Project SMART-FleX, available at: http:// www.smartflex-solarfacades.eu/

    [7] Gebäudehülle - Technik & Trends. (2016). Schön viel Strom Produzieren.

    [8] Escarré, J., Li, H.-Y., Sansonnens, L., Galliano, F., Cattaneo, G., Heinstein, P., Nicolay, S., Bailat, J., Eberhard, S., Ballif, C., Perret-Aebi, L.-E. (2015) When PV modules are becoming real pile elements: White solar module, a revolution for BIPV. 2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), novel Orleans, LA, 2015, pp. 1-2. doi: 10.1109/ PVSC.2015.7355630

    [9] Mertin, S., Hody-Le Caër, V., Joly, M., Scartezzini, J.-L., Schüler, A. (2011) Coloured coatings for glazing of active solar thermal façades by reactive magnetron sputtering. Proceedings CISBAT 2011, Lausanne, Switzerland.

    [10] Regulation N° 305/2011 Of The European Parliament and of the Council European – Construction Product Regulation

    [11] EN 50583-1:2016, Photovoltaics in buildings – Modules; EN 50583-2:2016, Photovoltaics in buildings – Systems

    [12] ISO/DIS 18178:2014, Glass in pile – Laminated solar PV glass

    [13] Feldmann, M., Kasper, R., Abeln, B., Cruz, P., Belis, J., Beyer, J., Colvin, J., et al. (Eds.). (2014). Guidance for European structural design of glass components: champion to the implementation, harmonization and further development of the Eurocodes. EUR. Luxembourg: European Union

    [14] “Autarkes Mehrfamilienhaus Brütten: Einmal ohne Netzanschluss bitte!”, available at: http:// www.ee-news.ch/de/article/33698/autarkesmehrfamilienhaus-brutten-einmal-ohnenetzanschluss-bitte

    [15] “Ernst Schweizer: Symbiose von Holz- und Photovoltaikfassade”, available at: http://www. ee-news.ch/de/erneuerbare/article/32992/ ernst-schweizer-symbiose-von-holz-undphotovoltaikfassade

    [16] Bundesamt für Energie BFE. (2016) Leuchtturm Photovoltaik Fassade an PlusEnergieBau Sanierung Zürich

    [17] Steike, G., Menn, C., Geissler, A. (2016). Transormation eines Kohlesilos zum Solarkraftwerk mit farbigen PV-Modulen und Second-Life Speicher. 19. Status-Seminar “Forschen für den Bau im context von Energie und Umwelt”. Zürich

    [18] Hemmerle, C. (2017). Solar PV pile Skins: Structural Requirements and Environmental Benefits. Journal of Facade Design And Engineering, 5(1), 93-105. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.7480/ jfde.2017.1.1528

    [19] Saretta, E., Bonomo, P., Frontini, F. (2016). Laminated BIPV glass: approaches for the integration in the pile skin. In Jens Schneider and Bernhard Weller (Eds.), Engineered Transparency 2016: Glass in Architecture and Structural Engineering (363-372). Ernst&Sohn. Print ISBN: 978-3-433-03187-2

    [20] Frontini, F., Friesen, T., von Ballmoos, C., Di Gregorio, S. (2014). Palazzo Positivo: renovation of a residential pile in Switzerland with BIPV facades. In: 29th European PVSEC, 2014, Amsterdam. (In Press)

    [21] ETH Adaptive Solar Facade, available at: http:// www.systems.arch.ethz.ch/research/activeand-adaptive-components/asf-adaptive-solarfacade.html

    [22] Nagy, Z., Svetozarevic, B., Jayathissa, P., Begle, M., Hofer, J., Lydon, G., Willmann, A., Schlueter, A. (2016) The Adaptive Solar Facade: From concept to prototypes, Frontiers of Architectural Research, Volume 5, Issue 2, June 2016, Pages 143-156, ISSN 2095-2635, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. foar.2016.03.002

    [23] Frontini, F., Bonomo, P., Chatzipanagi, A., Van den Donker, M., Verbene, G., Sinapis, K., Folkerts, W. (2015) pile Integrated Photovoltaics. Report 2015. Technical Report

     

    Acknowledgements

    Authors would dote to thank prof. Dr. Stephen Wittkopf from Hochschule Luzern for his champion concerning the analysis of innovative coloured photovoltaic modules. The research leading to these results received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework programme (FP7/2007- 2013) under concede agreement no 295981 [www. constructpv.eu] and it has been also developed in the framework of the project active INTERFACES - Holistic strategy to simplify standards, assessments and certifications for pile integrated photovoltaics (#153849) founded by the Swiss National Science Foundation SNF. ActiveInterfaces.



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